Western Disturbance: Effects on Indian Subcontinent

Western Disturbance: Effect on Winters Here we will discuss Western Disturbance:Effect on Winters, and Why winters are not wintry enough in this Article. Context The days have been unusually warm […]

Atomic Energy Commission

Atomic Energy Commission:– India is the only developing country that has achieved self-reliance in the sphere of nuclear fuel cycle activities, amidst several international technology control regimes. With the enactment […]

Atomic Energy Commission

India is the only developing country that has achieved self-reliance in the sphere of nuclear fuel cycle activities, amidst several international technology control regimes. With the enactment of the Atomic […]

India’s Three-Stage Nuclear Power Programme

The ultimate focus of the program is on enabling the thorium reserves of India to be utilized in meeting the country’s energy requirements. Stage I – Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor […]

Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR).

By – Dr. Sonal Gaurbhms (Delhi) PGDCC (Ger.) MHA (Delhi) Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian research and development (R&D) organization. […]

note on the Department of Science

Write a short note on the Department of Science and Industrial Research. of Technology with the mandate for indigenous technology promotion, development, and utilization. The primary DSIR is to encourage […]


Write a short note on the Department of Science and Technology. Introduction:- Department of Science & Technology (DST) was established in May 1971, with the objective of promoting new areas […]

Nuclear Technology

Nuclear Technology:-The energy released by the change in the nucleus of atoms is known as nuclear energy. The changes in the nucleus of atoms are normally caused by either nuclear […]


Some elements have more than one atomic mass but have the same electrical charge on their nucleus and chemical properties. Such element variants are called isotopes. Examples of isotopes are- […]


Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons. Disarmament generally refers to a country’s military or a specific type of weaponry. Disarmament is often taken to mean the […]

The Negotiable Instruments Act was enacted, in India, in 1881.

NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ACT, 1881 INTRODUCTION NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ACT 1881:-The Negotiable Instruments Act was enacted, in India, in 1881. Prior to its enactment, the provision of the English Negotiable Instrument Act […]


About Gandhi: Birth: 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar (Gujarat) Profile: Lawyer, politician, social activist, and writer who became the leader of the nationalist movement against the British rule of India. […]


What is the issue? OLD AGE ISSUES:– India has a serious problem of a growing elderly population. India lacks policy measures to address the problems of the elderly. What is […]


IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER [As Amended & Updated after the Amendments by the M.P. Land Revenue Code (Amendment) Act, 2018 (No. 23 of 2018) (w.e.f. 25-9-2018)] READ MORE:-Rowlatt Act & […]

Rowlatt Act & Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

Rowlatt Act & Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:-Rowlatt Satyagraha was in response to the British government enacting the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, popularly known as the Rowlatt Act. Gandhiji […]

Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India

Non-Cooperation & Khilafat Movement in India:-The Non – Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi on August 1, 1920, was the first mass movement organized nationwide during India’s struggle for freedom.  […]

Growth of Indian Nationalism

Growth of Indian Nationalism Several factors contributed to the emergence of Indian nationalism which can be analyzed as follows: Political and Administrative Unity: Growth of Indian Nationalism:- One of the […]

Revolutionary Terrorism

Revolutionary Terrorism:-Till 1905, the moderates were leading the National Movement and their compatibility with Britishers was beyond any doubt. They, in fact, wanted their demand to be conceded through constitutional […]


Background of the Surat Split SURAT SPLIT:- The years from 1885-1905 were known as the period of the moderates because they dominated the Indian National Congress.  The Moderates used petitions, […]

Facts and Importance of Swadeshi and Boycott Movements

Facts and Importance of Swadeshi and Boycott Movements:-Launched in the early 20th century, the Swadeshi movement was a direct consequence of the British Indian government’s decision to partition Bengal.  The […]

Growth of Indian Nationalism

Several factors contributed to the emergence of Indian nationalism which can be analyzed as follows: Political and Administrative Unity: Growth of Indian Nationalism:-One of the significant results of the British […]

Formation Of All India National Congress

Formation Of All India National Congress:- Here, we briefly outline the two broad theories behind the establishment of the Indian National Congress (INC), First Phase of Indian Nationalism (1885- 1915) […]

Indian National Congress Sessions

First Session: held at Bombay in 1885. President: W.C. Bannerjee Formation of Indian National Congress. Second Session: held at Calcutta in 1886. President: Dadabhai Naoroji Indian National Congress Sessions Third […]

Revolt of 1857

The Indian Mutiny of 1857-59 was a widespread but unsuccessful rebellion against the rule of the British East India Company in India which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf […]

The decline of the Mughal Empire

The Great Mughal Empire declined and disintegrated during the first half of the 18th century. The Mughal Emperors lost their power and glory and their empire shrank to a few […]

The decline of Mughals (Lecture -2) Bahadur Shah I

The decline of Mughals (Lecture -2) Bahadur Shah I:- On Aurangzeb’s death, his three sons fought among themselves for the throne. The 65-year-old Bahadur Shah emerged victorious. He was learned, […]

Nadir Shah’s Invasion (1738–39)

Nadir Shah, the ‘Napoleon of Iran’, invaded India in 1738 – 39. In 1738, Kabul, Jalalabad, and Peshawar were captured by the Persian invader Nadir Shah and Lahore fell in […]

What Is A Carbon Sink?

Forest like the Amazon rainforest is some of the world’s most effective carbon sinks. A carbon sink is anything that absorbs significantly more carbon than it produces Forests, oceans, and […]

Indus River Valley civilizations

Overview Indus River Valley civilizations:-The Harappan Civilization, which flourished in the Indus River Valley between 3300 and 1300 BCE, covered what is now northeast Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest India.Standardized weights and […]

The Indian Economy in Brief

The Indian Economy in Brief:- At the time of the nation’s impending independence, the Indian economy was in trouble. As a colony, she was serving the demands of another country’s […]

The Art and Science of Agriculture

The Art and Science of Agriculture:-The art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops, and raising livestock are known as agriculture. The art and science of cultivating the soil, […]


GST:- Goods and service tax is an indirect form of tax imposed on the manufacture, sale, and consumption of goods and services at the national level. It replaced indirect taxes […]

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution:-The Industrial Revolution was a period of history in the West that marked the transition from an agrarian economy to an industrialized one. It was a period that ushered […]


SHIFTING CULTIVATION: –The history of shifting cultivation is as old as the history of agriculture itself. On the basis of archaeological evidence and radiocarbon dating, the origin of shifting cultivation […]

Indian Agriculture Scenario

Indian Agriculture Scenario:- India has a long tradition of agriculture that extends back ten thousand years. India currently ranks second in the world for agricultural production. Additionally, it makes up […]

The Industrial Policy of India

Meaning The Industrial Policy of India:- Government involvement impacts the industry’s ownership, structure, and performance. It takes the form of regulations, the administration of payments, or other forms of monetary […]

Rock System in India

India’s Gondwana, Archean, and Cuddapah rock formations Rock System in India: Based on radiometric dating and information about ancient life preserved in rock layers, the geological time scale is a […]

Electromagnetic radiation

Electromagnetic radiation:- Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that includes radio waves, microwaves, X-rays, and gamma rays. It can be observed as visible light but can also be detected […]

The rotation of the Earth

The rotation of the Earth: It is concluded that this study is clarifying our understanding of the way the Earth rotations and how this rotation affects life on Earth. The […]


Nehru: Introduction JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (1889-64):-Nature and circumstance were both kinds to Jawaharlal Nehru. He was born into the Kashmiri Brahmin community, the most aristocratic sub-caste in the Hindu social system. […]


ARTICLE ON ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE (AMR):- occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites change over timeand no longer respond to medicines making infections harder to treat and increasing the risk ofdisease […]

Know all the information about Northern Cyprus

Northern Cyprus, which is officially known as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, is located on the northern end of the island of Cyprus. It is bordered to the south by […]

What is Biopiracy? Explain with examples from India.

Bioprospecting is an umbrella term describing the process of discovery and commercialization ofnew products based on biological resources. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) The ethical debate has sparked a new […]

Ecological Succession

What Is Ecological Succession? Ecological succession describes how a biological community evolves and changes over time. It occurs when natural events create a gap in an ecosystem. Various organisms or […]

Rural Debt Trap in India

The All-India Debt and Investment Surveys (AIDIS), carried out by the National Statistical Office (NSO) are among the most important nationally representative data sources on the rural credit market in India. Recently published, the […]

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a period of history in the West that marked the transition from an agrarian economy to an industrialized one. It was a period that ushered in […]

Temple Architecture

Basic Features of the Hindu Temples Temple Architecture The basic form of the Hindu temple comprises the following Also Read :NANO TECHNOLOGY – UPSC Garbhagriha: Mandapa: Shikhara or Vimana: Amalaka: […]


What is nano technology? When we study any material at its atomic and molecular level it is called nano technology. It studies at 10-9 m level. Origin of nanotechnology: Also […]

Nuclear Fusion

Isotopes Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons. Some common isotopes in fusion are: Also […]

What Is A Carbon Sink?

Carbon Sink? the carbon cycle forms an important part of life on Earth, and the way in which living things interact with one another. Carbon is essential to all life, […]


Introduction-Biofuels Biofuels have been around as long as cars have. At the start of the 20th century, Henry Ford planned to fuel his Model Ts with ethanol, and early diesel […]

Tackling antimicrobial resistance

About this article:-Tackling antimicrobial resistance Health ministers from the Group of Seven (G7) highly industrialised countries recently recognised antimicrobial resistance was a bigger threat to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) even though fighting it was […]


UPPSC Syllabus 2023 for Prelims & Mains Subjects Marks & No. of Questions Stage-I UPPSC PRELIMS EXAM PAPER I: GENERAL STUDIES I 200 Marks with 150 Questions PAPER II: GENERAL […]

Desalination Plant in Lakshadweep

Context :- National Institute of Ocean Technology to set up green, self-powered desalination plant in Lakshadweep. The NIOT is an institute under the aegis of the Ministry of Earth Sciences […]

Tectonic plates and Rifting

Tectonic plates and Rifting Context:  Recent studies show that Africa’s splitting plates could give birth to a new ocean, but with consequences. Major plates of Earth:- Minor Plates of the […]

Bar Council of India (BCI)

Context: Recently,the Bar Council of India (BCI) has allowed foreign lawyers and law firms to practise law in India on a reciprocity basis. About the Bar Council of India (BCI):- Historical […]

The Smart Cities Mission

Context:  Recently, under the Smart Cities Mission, cities across the country were asked to submit proposals for projects to improve municipal services and to make their jurisdictions more liveable. About […]

Calculator-online.net Overview

Calculator-online.net is a browser-based website including categories like Mathematics, Health, Physics, Chemistry, and many informative online tools. There are many applications that are quite informative for you. Being a student, […]

Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols missions(MAIA)

Context:-  NASA recently announced that it is partnering with the Italian Space Agency ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) to build and launch the Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols missions (MAIA). About Multi-Angle Imager […]

Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

Context:-  The Oscar for Best Documentary Short was announced for ‘The Elephant Whisperers’ which revolves around a family who adopts 2 orphan baby elephants in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and rears them. […]

UPSC Interview 2023 new program