State PCS

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UPSC Study Material

Internal Security

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National Security

  • National Security Act (NSA), 1980
  • Major shortcomings in India’s national security architecture
  • National Security Strategy
  • National Security Doctrine

Internal Security

  • Meaning of Internal Security
  • Review of Internal Security Threats and Vulnerabilities
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security
  • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act


  • Insurgency in North East India (NEI)
  • Left-wing Extremism
  • Maoist insurgent more than just ideological problem
  • Women cadres in left-wing extremism
  • Illegal immigration in India’s northern and eastern borders
  • Reasons that sustain insurgency in north east India
  • Recent Developments
  • Correlation between development and extremism
  • Impact of US withdrawal from Afghanistan

Armed Forces (Special Powers)

  • AFSPA Meaning
  • Disturbed Area
  • Powers of armed forces under AFSPA
  • Origin of AFSPA
  • AFSPA in Nagaland
  • Constitutionality of AFSPA & Role of Judiciary
  • AFSPA, a draconian Act?
  • Experts Recommendation on AFSPA
  • But, why have AFSPA?


  • Terrorism and role of External State and Non-State Actors
  • Reasons for rise of Terrorism
  • Terror Funding
  • Cross-Border Terrorism
  • Bioterrorism
  • Terrorism and challenge to Human Rights
  • Terrorism Measures- Institutional and Legal Framework
  • Militancy in Jammu and Kashmir

Money Laundering

  • Issues of Money Laundering
  • Working of Money Laundering
  • Evolving threats of Money laundering
  • Impacts of globalization on money laundering
  • Way forward
  • Cryptocurrency and Money Laundering
  • Measures taken National level to tackle Money Laundering
    • Statutory framework
    • Institutional framework
  • Measures taken International level to tackle Money Laundering
    • THE VIENNA CONVENTION on Money Laundering
    • Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG)
    • Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG)
    • Interpol
  • Efforts to Tackle Black Money

Cyber Security

  • Meaning, Need and Importance of Cyber Security
  • Cyber Security Framework in India
  • Present Status of Cyber Security
  • Cyber Security Index 2020
  • Various Cyber Threats
    • Meaning and Types of Cybersecurity Threats
    • What’s the Difference Between Malware, Trojan, Virus, and Worm?
    • Recent Cyberattacks
    • Cyber warfare
    • “Supply chain” cyber-attack
    • Cyber Terrorism
    • Growing threat of Cyber Security
    • Pegasus Spyware
    • Incidences of Cyberattacks in India
    • Cybercrime Against Women
    • Disinformation
    • Cognitive hacking
    • Way Forward
  • Challenges to Cyber Security
  • Institutional and Legislative Measures for Cyber Security
    • Steps taken by the Government to spread awareness about Cybercrimes
    • Cybercrime volunteer programme
    • National Cyber Security Strategy 2020
    • National Security Directive on Telecom Sector
    • National Cyber Security Policy, 2013
    • Concerns / Challenges and Way forward
  • Critical Infrastructure and Critical Information Infrastructure (CII)

Role of Media and Social Networking Sites
in Internal Security Challenges

  • Media
  • Issues and Measures with respect to Media
  • Disinformation
  • Paid News
  • Social Media
    • Rise of Social Media in recent decade
    • Positive Impact of Social Media
    • Negative impact of Social Media
    • Campaigns by Social Media Platforms
    • Role of Social Media during Pandemic
    • Challenges of Social Media in Democracy
    • Way Forward
  • Spread of Fake News
  • Threats to Internal Security by Social Media
  • Social media in the lives of women
  • Countering Deepfakes
  • Checking Online Abuse
  • Regulations on Social Media
  • Social Media- New Rules and Implications
  • Information Technology Act, 2000
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