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Israel-Palestine Conflict: History, Wars, and Solution

Israel-Palestine Conflict

Israel Palestine Conflict History

To comprehend the ongoing and intense conflict between Israel and Palestine today, delving into the historical context of the region and its people becomes essential. While the roots of the current strife trace back to the 20th century, a brief exploration of the area’s ancient history is crucial for grasping the profound religious and historical significance it holds, particularly for the key stakeholders embroiled in the conflict.

Israel-Palestine Conflict
  • Israel, a small country in West Asia, is comparable in size to one of India’s northeastern states, such as Meghalaya or Manipur.
  • Its borders are defined by the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Egypt to the south, Jordan and Syria to the east, and Lebanon to the north.
  • Israel boasts numerous sites holding religious importance for Jews, Christians, and Muslims, reflecting its intricate history.
  • The majority of Israel’s population is Jewish, and there are also communities of Christians and Muslims.

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Recent Developments in the Israel-Palestine Conflict

On May 6, 2021, a new wave of violence erupted in the region when Palestinians protested an expected Israeli Supreme Court decision on the eviction of six Palestinian families from Sheikh Jarrah in occupied East Jerusalem. The following day, Israeli Police entered the Al Aqsa mosque. Subsequently, Hamas and other Palestinian groups launched rockets from Gaza into Israel, prompting Israeli retaliation.

Who Are the Players in This Conflict?

There are many key players in the Israel-Palestine conflict. Some of the most important are: 


  • Central player in the Israel-Palestine conflict since its establishment.
  • Often referred to as the dominant state in the conflict, influencing its dynamics.


  • Occupied territory by Israel since its creation.
  • Aspires to be recognized as an independent state and asserts the right to exist.

United States:

  • Key participant with a longstanding role in the Israel-Palestine conflict.
  • Historically, a primary ally and global supporter of Israel, yielding substantial influence over policies of both Israel and Palestine.

United Nations:

  • Involved in the Israel-Palestine conflict since 1945.
  • Played a significant role in the creation of Israel, mediation of the Israeli-Arab conflict, and involvement in various conflicts and wars between Israel and Palestine.

Arab’s fight against the Israel (1948-49)

  • Arabs perceived the establishment of Israel as a conspiracy aimed at displacing them from their land, leading to the declaration of war by Arab states including Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, and Syria in 1948.
  • Notably, India opposed the UN resolution at the time, with Gandhi denouncing it as a crime against humanity, yet India recognized Israel in 1950.
  • Israel emerged victorious in the war against the Arab countries, expanding its territory significantly and initiating an expansionist policy.
  • The conflict resulted in a large exodus of Palestinians, who either fled or were forcibly displaced to settle in refugee camps near Israel’s border.
  • This event marked the beginning of the Palestine refugee crisis and laid the foundation for the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964, a group associated with resistance and national liberation.

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Formation of the State of Israel

1948 – 1956:

  • May 1948: Israel declares independence, marking the start of the Arab-Israeli War.
  • 1949: Ceasefire agreements lead to Jordan’s control of the West Bank and Egypt’s control of the Gaza Strip.
  • Over 700,000 Palestinians become refugees, termed the Nakba (catastrophe).

1956 – 1982:

  • 1956: Suez Crisis unfolds as Egypt nationalizes the Suez Canal; Israel, with British and French support, retakes the Sinai Peninsula.
  • 1967: Six-Day War results in Israel gaining control of the Gaza Strip, West Bank, Golan Heights, and Sinai Peninsula, including East Jerusalem.
  • 1973: Yom Kippur War erupts, leading to a UN-brokered ceasefire after two weeks.
  • 1982: Israel invades Lebanon, expelling the PLO.

Intifadas and Peace Accords:

  • 1987: First Palestinian Intifada begins, leading to the Oslo Peace Accords in 1993 and 1995.
  • Palestinian Authority formed to govern certain territories.

Second Palestinian Intifada:

  • 2000: Second Intifada initiated, marked by violence and unrest.
  • Ceasefire declared; Israel plans Gaza withdrawal by 2005.

Lebanon Wars:

  • First Lebanon War (1982-1985): IDF invades Southern Lebanon to expel the PLO.
  • Second Lebanon War (2006): Conflict between Israel and Hezbollah ends with a UN-brokered ceasefire.

Hamas Wars:

  • 2006: Hamas wins Palestinian elections; conflicts with Israel intensify in 2008, 2012, and 2014.

Current Situation:

  • Gaza ruled by Hamas; borders tightly controlled by Israel and Egypt.
  • West Bank remains occupied by Israel; tensions persist in Gaza, West Bank, and East Jerusalem.
  • Israel claims Jerusalem as its capital, while Palestinians seek East Jerusalem for a future state.
  • Over 135 UN member countries recognize Palestine, though Israel does not.
  • India recognized the Palestinian State in 1988.

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The enduring Israel-Palestine conflict spans nearly a century, characterized by persistent violence and turmoil. Despite numerous attempts, the two nations have struggled to reach common ground and establish a peace treaty. The inability to collaborate has hindered efforts to enhance the well-being of their respective citizens. The prolonged nature of the conflict can be attributed to entrenched beliefs on both sides, making compromise challenging.

Moreover, a reluctance to engage in peace negotiations further complicates the situation. The unwillingness of each party to come to the table and seek peaceful coexistence suggests that a resolution to the conflict is unlikely in the near future.

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