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Achievement of Indians in Science & Technology

Science & Tech

Achievement of Indians: India has achieved notable progress in the realm of science and technology, showcasing several remarkable accomplishments

Space exploration

India boasts a thriving space program, having launched multiple satellites dedicated to communication, meteorology, and observing Earth. Additionally, India has successfully sent a spacecraft to Mars and has ambitious plans for upcoming lunar missions. India excels in various technological domains.

Space Exploration: India’s successful space program has deployed satellites for communication, weather forecasting, and Earth observation. Notably, India’s spacecraft mission to Mars and upcoming lunar missions underscore its space exploration prowess.

Nuclear Technology: India operates a three-stage nuclear power program, with operational nuclear plants. It’s a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency and has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.


India has made significant strides in biotech, developing vaccines, drugs, and leading research in agricultural biotech and stem cells.

  • Information Technology: A global leader in IT, India’s prowess is seen in software development, IT services, and hardware manufacturing. It’s advanced in electronic voting machines and biometric ID systems.
  • Renewable Energy: India prioritizes renewable energy like solar and wind power, aiming for a substantial increase in its renewable energy share.
  • Defense Technology: India boasts a robust defense industry, excelling in missile systems, aircraft, and tank development.

Since 1947, India has made notable contributions to the realms of science and technology

Green Revolution

In 1947, India faced a wheat shortage, relying heavily on imports. By 1964, reforms and agricultural advancements doubled wheat output to 12 million tonnes but fell short of meeting demand. Scientist Benjamin Peary Pal at the Indian Agriculture Research Institute worked on disease-resistant wheat cultivars.

In 1961, IARI developed a dwarf spring wheat variety using the Norin-10 dwarfing gene from Norman Borlaug. These semi-dwarf cultivars, later adopted by farmers, led to the High Yielding Varieties Programme for various crops. Pal’s All India Coordinated Wheat Research Project drove significant agricultural progress, raising wheat production to 20 million tonnes and rice to 42 million tonnes by 1970. This marked the onset of the Green Revolution, enabling India’s self-sufficiency in food grain production in just a few decades

Satellite and communication revolution

In the mid-1960s, Vikram Sarabhai envisioned satellite technology for communication, remote sensing, and weather forecasting, despite India’s limited rocket and satellite capabilities. His goal was to leverage space tech for education, healthcare, and rural development.

Through the success of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) and the launch of the Aryabhata satellite by the Soviet Union, India not only gained rocket and satellite prowess but also showcased peaceful space technology use within a decade.

In the following decade, Indian scientists launched INSAT and IRS satellites, offering communication and TV services nationwide. These indigenous satellites enabled accurate forecasting of meteorological events like cyclones, saving lives. VSAT technology revolutionized banking and other services in the 1980s.

Pre-500 BCE in ancient India

Ancient Indian mathematicians played a pioneering role by introducing the decimal system and zero, which formed the foundation for modern mathematics. Additionally, Aryabhata, an esteemed mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer, accurately calculated the value of pi (π) and proposed a heliocentric model of the solar system. Additionally, Charaka, known as the father of Ayurveda, detailed the principles of traditional Indian medicine in his work, the Charaka Samhita.

During the period from 500 CE to 1700 CE in medieval India

Indian astronomers made notable strides in celestial studies, uncovering lunar eclipses and precisely computing planetary positions. Bhaskara II, a renowned 12th-century mathematician and astronomer, introduced calculus and made significant strides in algebra and trigonometry. Additionally, Sushruta, an ancient Indian surgeon, conducted pioneering surgeries such as rhinoplasty and cataract surgery

Modern India (1700 CE to Present):-
  • Jagadish Chandra Bose, an Indian physicist and biologist, invented the Cresco graph to measure plant growth.
  • C. V. Raman, an Indian physicist, discovered the Raman Effect, earning him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for explaining light scattering by molecules.
  • Homi J. Bhabha, an Indian nuclear physicist, played a crucial role in starting India’s nuclear power program.
  • Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, an Indian aerospace scientist, made significant contributions to India’s ballistic missile program and served as India’s President from 2002.
  • Indigenization of technology refers to the process of developing and adopting technologies that are locally developed and suited to the specific needs and conditions of a country or region.
  • It involves creating and nurturing a self-reliant and sustainable technology ecosystem that can reduce dependence on imported technologies and products.
  • Examples of indigenization of technology:

Indian Space Program: The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has successfully developed indigenous technologies for space exploration, including satellite launch vehicles, remote sensing, and communication satellites like GSAT.

Indian Defense Industry: India has achieved significant milestones in creating indigenous defense technologies, crafting fighter jets like Tejas, missiles such as Akash, and submarines, bolstering its defense capabilities.

Indigenous Energy Sources: India is actively pursuing indigenous energy sources like solar and wind power to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels, aiming for greater energy independence.

Digital India Initiative: The Digital India initiative endeavors to domesticate technology and build a robust digital infrastructure, supporting the nation’s expanding digital economy.

Advancement of Fresh Technologies in India

  • India prioritizes science and technology for economic growth, ranking third globally for technology investments.
  • The country stands among the top nations in scientific research, particularly excelling in space exploration with moon missions and the PSLV.
  • Plans to allocate 2% of GDP for R&D by 2022 indicate a robust commitment to technological advancement.
  • Anticipated growth in engineering R&D, IT spending, and the medical technology sector showcases a thriving technological landscape.
  • Increasing R&D projects, publications, and innovations signal India’s rising prominence in global scientific research.
  • The emergence of technology incubators and the National Artificial Intelligence Strategy reflect India’s dedication to innovation and AI exploration.
  • Digital technologies have revolutionized the Indian economy, empowering consumers, reshaping business models, and enhancing government services

In the Indian economy, some of the newest technologies include :-

  • Blockchain: A secure and transparent distributed database, altering sectors like real estate, healthcare, logistics, and banking.
  • IoT (Internet of Things): Connectivity between physical devices, enabling applications in smart cities, connected homes, and wearables.
  • AR (Augmented Reality): Enhanced real-world views with computer-generated sensory input, applied in gaming, retail, training, and automotive sectors.
  • AI (Artificial Intelligence): Machines capable of independent learning, finding applications in agriculture, finance, manufacturing, and healthcare industries.

Major problems with India in developing new technologies:-

  • Limited R&D Investment: India trails developed nations in R&D investment, hindering new technology development in crucial fields like healthcare, energy, and agriculture.
  • Skilled Workforce Shortage: Shortage of skilled professionals in engineering, science, and IT hampers technology development and competitiveness.
  • Funding Constraints: Many innovative Indian startups struggle to secure funding, curbing technology development and growth potential.
  • Complex Regulations: India’s intricate regulatory setup, especially for new technologies, hampers their development and global competitiveness.
  • Industry-Academia Gap: Limited collaboration between industry and academia hinders the flow of ideas and expertise, posing challenges for cutting-edge technology development.


India’s journey in technological advancement, in summary, showcases remarkable progress alongside persistent challenges. Despite significant strides in innovation and technological growth, attention needs to be directed towards hurdles such as limited R&D investment, workforce shortages, funding constraints, regulatory complexities, and industry-academia gaps for sustained development. By addressing these challenges, India can pave the way for a more robust and competitive technological landscape. This, in turn, enables the country to realize its full potential as a global leader in innovation and technology.

Read also: National Deep Tech Startup Policy

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