UPSC Study Material

“Click to Read ”

    HISTORY OF INDIA: India has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of the world. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the North to the Sun drenched coastal villages of the South. In this section, you will certainly get the best glimpse of this great country.

India’s history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the diverse cultures that surround India. Available evidence suggests that the use of iron, copper and other metals was widely prevalent in the Indian sub-continent at a
fairly early period, which is indicative of the progress that this part of the world had made. By the end of the fourth millennium BC, India had emerged as a region of highly developed civilization.

In this section of the article we are providing you the links to learn about the Modern history of India. These articles are useful for UPSC CSE and State PCS.   


Scenario before 1857

Rise of Nationalism

The struggle for Swaraj

Intimation of freedom

  • Civil Disobedience Movement
  • Round table conference
  • Poona pact
  • Government of India Act 1935
  • Tripuri session- 1939
  • August offer
  • Individual Satyagraha 1940-41

Towards achievement of freedom

  • Popular struggles in the princely states
  • 2nd World War and Nationalist response

Partition of India

  • Rise of Communalism
  • Wavell plan
  • Cabinet Mission Plan
  • Mountbatten plan

During the freedom struggle

  • Indian renaissance/socio-religious movement
  • Civil Rebellious during British
  • Tribal movements during period
  • Peasants movement during period
  • Land – Revenue system, the Dansara System, the Mansabdari
  • System and the Army

Akbar’s Religious Views

  • Relations with the Ulama and Social Reforms
  • The Early Phase (1556-73)
  • The Second Phase (1573-80) – the Ibadat Khana
  • Debates – the Mahzar – Breach with Orthodox
  • Ulama – Re-organisation of Madad-i-Maash Grants
  • Third or Final Phase – Din-i-Illahi – State
  • Policies and religious toleration

The Deccan and the Mughals (Upto 1657)

  • The Deccani States upto 1595
  • Mughal Advance towards the Deccan
  • Mughal Conquest of Berar, Khandesh and Parts Of Ahmadnagar
  • Rise of Malik Ambar, and Frustration of
  • Mughal Attempt at Consolidation (1601-27)
  • Extinction of Ahmadnagar, Acceptance of Mughal
  • Suzerainty by Bijapur and Golconda
  • Shah Jahan and the Deccan (1636-57)
  • Cultural Contribution of the Deccani States

Foreign Policy of the Mughals

  • Akbar and the Uzbeks
  • The Question of Qandahar and Relations with Iran
  • Shah Jahan’s Balkh Campaign
  • Mughal – Persian Relations – the Last Phase

India in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century

  • Jahangir’s Accession – his Early Difficulties
  • Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire – Mewar, East India and Kangra
  • Nur Jahan, and the Nur Jahan ‘Junta’
  • The Rebellions of Shah Jahan, and the coup de main of Mahabat Khan the coup de main of Mahabat Khan
  • Jahangir as a Ruler
  • State and Religion in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century
  • Shah Jahan- Consolidation and Expansion of the Empire
  • Evolution of the Mughal Ruling Class and the Mansabdari System

Aurangzeb – Religious Policies, North India and the Rajputs

  • War of Succession
  • Religious Policy : First Phase (1658-79)
  • Reforms and Puritanical Measures, Hindu
  • Temples, Jizyah; Second Phase (1679-1707)
  • Territorial Consolidation and Expansion of Empire – North India
  • Popular Revolts – Jats, Satnamis, Afghans and Sikhs
  • Breach with Marwar and Mewar

Climax and Crisis of the Mughal Empire the Marathas and the Deccan

  • Rise of the Marathas – Easy Career of Shivaji
  • Treaty of Purandar – the Agra Visit
  • Shivaji’s Swarajya – Administration and Achievements
  • Aurangzeb and the Deccani States (1658-87)
  • Marathas and the Deccani States (1687-1707)
  • Assessment of Aurangzeb and the Jagirdari Crisis

Society- Structure and Growth

  • Rural Society
  • Towns and Town Life
  • Artisans and Master- Craftsmen
  • Women
  • Servants and Slaves
  • Standard of Living
  • The Ruling Classes – Nobility, Rural Gentry
  • The Middle Strata
  • The Commercial Classes

Economic Life-Patterns and Prospects

  • Inland Trade
  • Overseas Trade- Role of Foreign Trading
  • Companies – Position of Indian Merchants Over-land Trade
  • Working class Movement (1850-1900)
  • Growth of communalism
  • Left and communist trends in National Movement
  • Press and education during British period
  • Role of women in Freedom Struggle
  • Governor generals of India
  • Viceroys of India
  • Important persons
  • Important news paper/journals
  • Congress sessions


Visual Art

  • Sculptures of Harappan Civilisation
  • Sculptures of Mauryan Age
  • Post-Mauryan Period
  • Jain Sculpture
  • Buddhist Sculpture
  • Gupta Sculpture
  • Medieval School of Sculpture
  • Modern Indian Sculpture

Architecture in Ancient India

  • Harappan Period
  • Mauryan Architecture
  • Post-Mauryan Period
  • Gupta Period
  • Temples of Khajuraho
  • Temples of Odisha
  • Temples of Gwalior
  • Temples of Gujarat
  • Temples of Rajasthan
  • Temples of Bengal
  • Temples of Assam
  • Temples of Himachal Pradesh
  • Temples of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Pallava Period
  • Chola Period
  • Pandya Temples
  • Vijayanagar Period
  • Nayaka Temples
  • Temples of Kerala
  • Vesara Style
  • Hoysala Style
  • Rashtrakuta Period

Indo-Islamic Architecture

  • Imperial Style (Delhi Sultanate)
  • Provincial Style
  • Mughal Style
  • Sikh Style of Architecture
  • Rajput Architecture
  • Salient features

Modern Architecture

  • European Influence
  • Indo-Saracenic Architecture
  • Post-Independence Period

Indian Paintings

  • Tradition of Mural Paintings in India
  • Tradition of Miniature Paintings in India
  • Paintings in the Deccan
  • Rajput School of Painting
  • Pahari School of Painting
  • Miniature Painting in South India
  • Regional Paintings
  • Modern Paintings
  • Contemporary Paintings

Pottery Tradition in India

  • Orchre Coloured Pottery (OCP)
  • Black and Red Ware (BRW)
  • Painted GreyWare (PGW)
  • Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW)
  • Glazed and Unglazed Pottery

Music in India

  • Main Pillars of India Music
  • Forms of Indian Music
  • Musical Instruments
  • Institutions Related to Music

Dances in India

  • Concept of Dance in India
  • Concept of Ashta Nayika
  • Eight Classical Dance Forms in India
  • Folk Dances
  • Modern Dances

Martial Arts in India

  • Genesis of Martial Arts
  • Forms of Traditional Martial Arts

Indian Theatre

  • Classical Sanskrit Theatre
  • Regional Theatre
  • Modern Theatre
  • Renaissance of Indian Theatre

Indian Puppetry

  • String Puppets
  • Shadow Puppets
  • Rod Puppets
  • Glove puppets
  • Modern Puppetry
  • Tribal Puppetry

Indian Cinema

  • Cinema in India
  • History of Indian Cinema
  • Classification of Indian Cinema Film Music of India

Religions in India

  • Pre-Vedic Religion
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Jainism
  • Sikhism
  • Islam
  • Christianity
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Judaism
  • Philosophy in India

Bhakti & Sufi Movements

  • Bhakti Movement
  • Vaishnava Acharyas: Metaphysical Foundation
  • Other Saints of Bhakti Movement
  • Maharashtra Dharma
  • Sufism

Languages & Literature in India

  • Sanskrit Literature
  • Pali Literature
  • Prakrit Literature
  • Tamil Literature
  • Malayalam Literature
  • Kannada Literature
  • Odia Literature
  • Assamese Literature
  • Bengali Literature
  • Gujarati Literature
  • Rajasthani Literature
  • Punjabi Literature
  • Marathi Literature
  • Hindi Literature
  • Persian Literature
  • Urdu Literature

Miscellaneous Topics

  • Indian Handicrafts
  • Indian Universities
  • Personalities Related to Culture
  • Places of Cultural Interest
  • Fairs and Festivals in India
  • Cultural Institutions in India
  • Awards and Honours Associated with Culture
  • The Calendar
  • The Eras
  • Science and Technology in Ancient India
  • UNESCO’s List of Cultural Heritage in India
  • Legal Provisions Related to the Protection and Promotion of Indian Culture and Heritage

Recent developments

  • Schemes of Cleanliness of Tourist Places
  • Swachh Bharat – Swachh Smarak
  • Swachh Bharat – Swachh Pakwan

(Hunar Zaika)

  • ‘Swachh Bharat – Swachh Paryatan’
  • Swachh Smarak Swachh Bharat’ app
  • National Tourism Policy, 2015
  • Schemes of Development of Cultural Heritage
  • Sanskriti app
  • Cultural Mapping of India
  • Cultural Heritage Youth Leadership Programme
  • Preservation of Cultural Heritage of Himalayas
  • Nearly 100 Monuments Identifies for Portal on “Must-See Monuments”
  • Schemes for for Monument Development
  • Adarsh Smarak Yojana
  • Monuments of National importance
  • Cultural Scheme Monitoring System
  • Schemes for promotion of Culture
  • Culture Ministry To Grade Artists Writers For Selection Process
  • Schemes for Serious Literature and Litterateurs
  • National Mission on Monuments and Antiquities
  • National Mission on Manuscripts
  • National Mission on Libraries
  • Gandhi Heritage Sites Mission
  • International Initiatives for Cultural Development and Recognition
  • Project Mausam
  • International Buddhist Conclave
  • World’s Heritage
  • UNESCO inscribes Yoga in the representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
  • UNESCO Creative Cities Network
  • UNESCO Global Geopark
  • National Virtual Library of India
  • Animal Sports in India.
  • Jallikattu
  • Kambala
  • Bulbul Fight
  • Bullock Cart Racing
  • GI- Tag
  • Definition:
  • GI vs Trademark
  • Right under GI
  • Famous Goods
  • Latest addition
  • Festivals in News
  • International Yoga Day
  • Rashtriya Ekta Diwas
  • Buddhist Circuit
upsc interview