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Theatre Forms Of India UPSC

Indian Folk theatre is a combination of music, dance, ballad recitation. It has its roots in native culture having local identity and.....

Indian Folk theatre is a combination of music, dance, ballad recitation. It has its roots in native culture having local identity and social values. It has been used as an effective medium to communicate social, cultural and political issues to people in rural areas.It was used as a perfect medium for creating awareness among masses.

BHAND PATHERKashmiro    unique combination of dance, music and acting.
o    Satire, wit and parody are preferred for inducing laughter.
o    In this theatre form, music is provided with surnai, nagaara and dhol.
Since the actors of Bhand Pather are mainly from the farming community, the impact of their way of living, ideals and sensitivity is discernible.
SWANGRajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Malwa region of Madhya Pradesho    mainly music-based
o    prose too, played its role in the dialogues.
two important styles of Swang are from Rohtak and Haathras
NAUTANKIUttar Pradesho       The meters used in the verses are: Doha, Chaubola, Chhappai, Behar-e-tabeel women have also started taking part in the performances
RAASLEELAUttar Pradesho    In this theatre form the dialogues in prose combined beautifully with songs and scenes from Krishna’s pranks.
based exclusively on Lord Krishna
BHAVAIGujarato   centers of this form are Kutch and Kathiawar.
o    instruments used in Bhavai are: bhungal, tabla, flute, pakhaawaj, rabaab, sarangi, manjeera, etc. In Bhavai, there is a rare synthesis of devotional and romantic sentiments.
JATRAOrissa and eastern Bihar, originated in Bengalo   Krishna Jatra became popular due to Chaitanya’s influence. Later, however, worldly love stories too, found a place in Jatra.
MAACHMadhya Pradesho   songs are given prominence in between the dialogues.
o   The term for dialogue in this form is bol and rhyme in narration is termed vanag.
o   The tunes of this theatre form are known as rangat.
BHAONAAssamo   presentation of the Ankia Naat
o    cultural glimpses of Assam, Bengal Orissa, Mathura and Brindavan can be seen.
o    The Sutradhaar, or narrator begins the story, first in Sanskrit and then in either Brajboli or Assamese.
TAMAASHAMaharashtrao   evolved from the folk forms such as Gondhal, Jagran and Kirtan.
o    Unlike other theatre forms, in Tamaasha the female actress is the chief exponent of dance movements in the play.
o    She is known as Murki.
o    Classical music, footwork at lightning-speed, and vivid gestures make it possible to portray all the emotions through dance.
DASHAVATARKonkan and Goa regionso   Performers personify the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu-the god of preservation and creativity.
KRISHNATTAMKeralao   cycle of eight plays performed for eight consecutive days.
o   based on the theme of Lord Krishna – his birth, childhood pranks and various deeds depicting victory of good over evil.
MUDIYETTUKeralao    performed only in the Kali temples of Kerala, as an oblation to the Goddess
o   seven characters in Mudiyettu-Shiva, Narada, Darika, Danavendra, Bhadrakali, Kooli and Koimbidar (Nandikeshvara) are all heavily made-up.
KARYALA Himachal Pradesho   normally performed around the Dussehra festival
o    prefaced by virtuoso drumming, uses minimal props and often incorporates dance and comic acts
o    local variants all over Himachal Pradesh (banthada in Mandi, budechhu in Sirmaur and bhagtu in Kangra)
o    derives its theme from the daily life and concerns of the villagers
KOODIYAATTAMKeralao   based on Sanskrit theatre traditions
o    part of temple rituals performed in sacred theaters
o    recognized by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
o    Emphasis on hand gestures and eye movements makes this dance and theatre form unique.
YAKSHAGAANAKarnatakao   unique harmony of musical tradition, eye-catching costumes, and authentic styles of dance, improvised gestures and acting, with its extemporaneous dialogue holding a wide appeal
o    mythological stories and epics
o    presented from dusk to dawn, this folk theatre is predominantly seen in the coastal districts  
THERUKOOTHU Tamil Naduo   “street play”
o    mostly performed at the time of annual temple festivals of Mariamman (Rain goddess) to achieve rich harvest
o    cycle of eight plays based on the life of Draupadi
o    performance includes lively dances and songs sung in a high pitch by the male actors (even the female roles are played by males) who wear wide colorful costumes, sparkling shoulder plates, elaborate head-dresses and thick bright make-up
RAMMAN Uttarakhand   
o    religious festival in honour of the village deity, Bhumiyal Devta.
o    made up of highly complex rituals that involve the recitation of a version of the epic Ramayana and various legends
o    performance of local songs and masked dances

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Read Also: All About Martial Art Forms Of India

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