State PCS

Edit Template
Edit Template

All About Martial Art Forms Of India

People practice martial arts for various reasons such as self-defense, competition, maintaining physical health and fitness.....

People practice martial arts for various reasons such as self-defense, competition, maintaining physical health and fitness, entertainment, as well as for mental, physical, and spiritual development. Martial arts encompass codified systems and traditions of combat practices. 

Martial art literally means ‘arts associated with waging of war’. A number of martial arts form in the country are closely related to dance, yoga and performing arts.

Since ancient times, India has gained renown for developing a wide variety of martial arts, making it a land of diverse cultures and ethnicities. In the past, people primarily used these art forms for warfare. However, today, people commonly use these art forms for purposes such as demonstration, rituals, achieving physical fitness, and as methods of self-defense.

The British rule led to the banning of several art forms, including Kalaripayattu and Silambam. However, these art forms resurfaced and became popular after India gained independence.

List of Martial Arts Forms

PARI-KHANDAo    ‘Pari’ means shield while ‘khanda’ refers to sword. Therefore, both shield and sword are used in this art.
o    It involves fighting using Sword and Shield.
o    Its steps and techniques are used in Chhau dance of Bihar.
INBUAN WRESTLINGo    It was started in Mizoram, believed to have its genesis in 1750 A.D. in Duntland village.
o    This art consists of very strict rules that prohibit stepping out the circle, kicking and knee bending.
o    It also involves catching of the belt worn around their waist by the wrestlers.
o    When people migrated from Burma to Lushai hills then this art form was regarded as a sport.
KUTTU VARISAIo    It was originated and mainly practiced in South India and also popular in north-eastern part of Sri Lanka and Malaysia.
o    Techniques: Grappling, striking and locking techniques are used in this art.
o    This art was first mentioned in Sangam literature in the first or second century B.C.
o    Kuttu Varisai means ‘empty hand combat’.
o    It is an unarmed Dravidian martial art used to advance athleticism and footwork through yoga, gymnastics, breathing exercises etc.
o    It also uses animal-based sets including snake, eagle, tiger, elephant and monkey.
MUSTI YUDDHAo    It is an unarmed martial art form. Since 1960 it is a popular art. Started in Varanasi. Kicks, punches, knee and elbow strikes are the techniques used by this martial art.
o    It incorporates the development of all three aspects physical, mental and spiritual.
o    The fights in this art are named on the Hindu God and divided into four categories.
o    The first is known as Jambuvanti that refers to the forcing the opponent into submission through locking and holding.
o    Second is Hanumanti, which is for technical superiority.
o    Third refers to Bhimaseni, which focusses on sheer strength and fourth is called Jarasandhi that concentrates on limb and joint breaking.
LATHIo    Lathi is one of the oldest weapons used in martial arts. It was originated in Punjab and Bengal.
o    Lathi refers to a ‘stick’ mainly cane sticks which is generally 6 to 8 feet in length and sometimes metal tipped.
o    It is also a common sport in various villages of the country.
THODAo    It was started in Himachal Pradesh and Wooden bows, arrows are used.
o    Thoda name is derived from the round wooden piece attached to the head of an arrow to minimise its lethal potential.
o    It is a mixture of martial art, sport and culture.
o    It takes place during Baisakhi every year.
o    This martial art relies on a player of skill of archery and can be dated back at the time of Mahabharata where bows and arrows were used in the valleys of Kullu and Manali.
o    In the game, there are 2 groups of 500 people each. All of them are not archers but dancers also who came with them to boost the morale of their respective teams.
o    The two teams are called Pashis and Saathis, who believed to be the descendants of Pandavas and Kauravas of Mahabharata.
GATKAo    Gatka is a weapon based martial art form performed by Sikhs of Punjab.
o    Gatka means whose freedom belongs to grace. Others say that ‘Gatka’ comes from a Sanskrit word ‘Gadha’ means mace.
o    This art uses weapons like Kirpan, Talwar and Kataar.
o    It is displayed in various occasions, celebrations in the state including fairs.
THANG-TA AND SARIT SARAKo    This art was created by the Meitei people of Manipur.
o    Thang refers to a ‘sword’ while Ta refers to a ‘spear’ and is an armed martial art whereas Sarit Sarak is an unarmed art form that uses hand to hand combat.
o    In 17th century this art was used by Manipuri kings against Britishers later on when Britishers captured the area this technique was banned.
o    Thang-Ta is also known as Huyen Lallong, which is a popular ancient martial art which uses other weapons including an axe and a shield.
o    It is practiced in 3 different ways: Firstly, ritualistic in nature linked with tantric practices, secondly, mesmerizing performance of sword and sword dances and thirdly, is the actual technique of fighting.
SILAMBAMo    It is a kind of Staff Fencing originated in Tamil Nadu, a modern and scientific martial art.
o    Techniques of Silambam: Swift movements of the foot, use of thrust, cut, chop, sweep to achieve mastery & development of force, momentum & precision at different levels of the body, snake hits, monkey hits, hawk hits etc.
o    Silambam is promoted in Tamil Nadu by the rulers Pandya, Chola and Chera and the reference to the sale of Silambam staves, pearls, swords and armours can be seen in a Tamil literature ‘Silapaddigaram’.
o    This art also travelled to Malaysia, where it is a famous sport apart from a self defence technique.
o    For mock fighting and self-defence the long-staff technique is used. Infact, Lord Muruga (in Tamil Mythology) and sage Agasthya are credited with the creation of Silambam.
Even during Vedic age, training was imparted to young men as a ritual and for an emergency
KALARIPAYATTUo    It is the oldest martial art in India originated in the state of Kerala in 4th century A.D.
o    Techniques of Kalaripayattu: Uzhichil or the massage with Gingli oil, Otta, Maipayattu or body exercises, Puliyankam or sword fight, Verumkai or bare-handed fight etc.
o    Kalari is a Malayalam word which means School/gymnasium/training hall where Martial arts are practiced or taught.
o    Kalaripayattu was introduced as martial art by a legend, sage Parasurama, who built temples.
o    This art is used as a means of unarmed self-defence and a way to achieve physical fitness today. Also used in traditional rituals and ceremonies.
o    It includes mock duels (armed and unarmed combat) and physical exercises, important aspect is the style of fighting and is nor accompanied by any drumming or song.
o    Its important key is footwork which includes kicks, strikes and weapon-based practice.
o    Its popularity also increases with the movie Ashoka and the Myth.
o    Women also practiced this art, Unniyarcha; a legendary heroine won many battles using this martial art.
MALLAKHAMBo    It is a traditional form of gymnastics performed with a wooden pole (made of wood from sheesham or Indian rosewood and polished with castor oil), a cane, or a rope.
o    Though Madhya Pradesh declared Mallakhamb the State sport only in 2013, it had been developed as a competitive sport since 1981, with rules and regulations introduced at the first National Championship that year.
KATTI SAMU (SWORD FIGHT) & KARA SAMU (STAFF FIGHT)o    In this type of Martial arts person use Staff (Mainly Made of Bamboo) or Sword to defend or attack the enemy.
o    Originated from Andhra Pradesh and Some Parts of Telangana.
ADIMURAIo    regarded as one of the oldest and most important martial arts to have been practiced in ancient Tamilakam (present day Indian state of Tamil Nadu).
o    The practitioners of Adimurai defeat the opponents by striking them either using their legs or hands.
o    It is believed that Adimurai originated from Southern Parts of Tamil Nadu Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari.
MARDHANI KHELo    Mardani Khel is an armed Indian martial art from Maharashtra.
o    It is particularly known for its use of the uniquely Indian patta (sword) and vita (corded lance).
o    The early history of Mardani Khel as a distinct system is difficult to trace prior to the 1600s, but it is said to owe its development to the particular geographic conditions of Maharashtra.
SQAYo    Sqay is an Indian martial arts form of sword-fighting originating in the Kashmir region of ancient India.
o    It is governed by the Sqay Federation of India.
o    Armed sqay makes use of a curved single-edge sword paired with a shield, or one sword in each hand.
o    Unarmed techniques incorporate kicks, punches, locks and chops.
o    Sqay have different techniques single sword double sword free hand techniques and lessons of both free hand and sword.
CHEIBI GAD-GAo    This is one of Manipur’s most ancient martial arts.
o    The fighting equipment comprises a sword and a shield, now modified to a stick encased in soft leather and a shield made of leather.
o    The contestants fight a duel, and victory goes to the person, who scores the maximum points.
o    In ancient times, sword and spears were used by the contestants.
o    Victory in this martial art, depends more on skill, than brawn and brute force.

Martial Art Forms Of India, Martial Art Forms Of India, Martial Art Forms Of India

Read Also: All About Classical Dance Of India

Demo Class/Enquiries

blog form

More Links
What's New
IAS NEXT is a topmost Coaching Institute offering guidance for Civil & Judicial services like UPSC, State PCS, PCS-J exams since more than 10 years.
Contact Us
Social Icon

Copyright ©  C S NEXT EDUCATION. All Rights Reserved