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Nuclear Technology – UPSC

Nuclear Technology

Nuclear energy is the energy in the nucleus, or core, of an atom. Atoms are tiny units that make up all matter in the universe, and energy is what holds the nucleus together. There is a huge amount of energy in an atom’s dense nucleus. In fact, the power that holds the nucleus together is officially called the “strong force”.

  • Nuclear energy is used to generate electricity by breaking apart atoms through a process called nuclear fission.
  • Nuclear power plants consist of various machines designed to control nuclear fission effectively for electricity production.
  • These reactors use pellets made from uranium as fuel for the nuclear fission process.
  • When uranium atoms split, they release fission products, which initiate a chain reaction by splitting more uranium atoms.
  • The chain reaction generates heat as a byproduct.
  • The steam produced turns turbines, which then drive generators to create electricity.
  • Control rods made of materials like xenon can adjust the electricity production by absorbing some of the fission products. More control rods slow down the reaction for safety, while removing them increases electricity production.

Key Point of Nuclear Technology – UPSC

Benefits of Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy in India

Components of a nuclear power plant

Types of Reactors

India three stage nuclear programme

Evolution of India’s nuclear policy


Civil Nuclear Liability Act


NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty)

Nuclear Suppliers Group

Read more: Nuclear Energy: Its Importance to India and the World

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