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Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty – NPT

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

The Non-Proliferation Treaty, also known as the NPT, came about after years of negotiations between various countries. It was crafted between 1965 and 1968 by the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, which was supported by the United Nations and based in Geneva, Switzerland. However, it wasn’t until 1970 that the treaty officially came into effect. Since then, it has garnered more support from countries worldwide than any other agreement aimed at limiting arms and promoting disarmament. Despite its widespread acceptance, there are still four UN member states that haven’t signed on. Among them are India, Israel, and Pakistan, all of which either possess or are believed to possess nuclear weapons. Additionally, South Sudan, which gained independence in 2011, has yet to join the treaty.

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What is the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)?

The Non-Proliferation Treaty is a multilateral treaty drafted by the 18 Nation committee on Disarmament. It is a UN-sponsored organization that is based in Switzerland. The NPT aims to limit the spread of nuclear weapons, include three elements:

  • Non-Proliferation
  • Disarmament
  • Peaceful use of atomic energy

The Non-Proliferation Treaty, or NPT, was signed back in 1968 and officially started in 1970. It’s a big deal, involving a whopping 187 nations. Now, let’s rewind a bit to 1945 when the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, bringing an end to World War 2 but causing devastating casualties and sickness due to radiation. Those bombings really got the world powers thinking about the need for better control over nuclear weapons. Fast forward to 1961, the United Nations stepped in, passing a resolution to push for the Non-Proliferation Treaty, aiming to put the brakes on any nuclear arms race.

Important Pillars

  • First Pillar: The States-Parties commit to general and complete disarmament.
  • Second Pillar: Non-Nuclear Weapon States (NNWS) forgo development or acquiring nuclear weapons.
  • Third Pillar: States-Parties can access and develop nuclear technology for peaceful applications.

India’s Stand On NPT

India, along with four other nations—Pakistan, Israel, North Korea, and South Sudan—chose not to sign the NPT or withdrew after initially signing it.

  • India has consistently rejected the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) because it views the treaty as discriminatory against India.
  • Indian leaders have opposed various international agreements focused on non-proliferation because they believe these agreements unfairly target non-nuclear states while allowing the five nuclear weapon powers to maintain their monopoly.

Issues with NPT

The issues associated with NPT are as follows:

  • Some people argue about how well the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) actually stops countries from getting nuclear weapons.
  • People worry if the countries with nuclear weapons are really serious about getting rid of them like they promised in the NPT.
  • Some countries without nuclear weapons think the ones with them aren’t doing a good job of getting rid of them.
  • It’s taking a long time to get rid of all the nuclear weapons, and that’s a big problem.
  • Not every country has joined the NPT, which makes some people worried that it doesn’t work everywhere.
  • Even though they’re part of the NPT, some countries still do nuclear tests, which makes the treaty look weak.
  • When some countries leave the NPT, it makes people wonder if it’s still a good treaty.
  • The NPT needs to talk about new nuclear technologies so people know how to control them.
  • Different regions worry about security in different ways, which might make them not want to follow the NPT.
  • Making sure everyone follows the NPT’s rules is really hard.

Read Also: Nuclear Suppliers Group

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