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Loss of Biodiversity

Loss of Biodiversity


loss of Biodiversity, seen as the disappearance or decline of species in an area, can lead to reduced plant output, decreased resilience to environmental changes, and greater variability in ecosystem processes like plant growth, water use, and disease cycles. This loss also risks the coextinction of species that rely on each other in food chains and disrupts ecosystem pathways that help cope with adverse conditions. Ultimately, it poses a direct threat to food security in specific habit.

Reasons Responsible for Loss of Biodiversity

Habitat Loss and Fragmentation:
Human activities such as land use changes for agriculture, infrastructure development, urbanization, and mining have led to significant habitat loss and fragmentation. This has resulted in a 30% decline in wetlands and extensive conversion of tropical forests and grasslands over the past 40 years. Pollution further degrades habitats, impacting species survival.

Over-exploitation of Species:
Unsustainable hunting, overfishing, and overharvesting of plants have caused rapid declines in biodiversity. Historical examples like the extinction of Steller’s sea cow and passenger pigeon highlight the consequences of human exploitation of natural resources, driven by changing consumption patterns.

Environmental Pollution:
Pollutants from fertilizers, industrial effluents, and urban runoff pose threats to biodiversity. Oil spills like the 2017 incident off Chennai and plastic pollution harm aquatic and terrestrial species. Air pollution contributes to the decline of bird species in urban areas.

Global Climate Change:
Climate change affects biodiversity (loss of biodiversity) by altering species’ distributions, flowering times, and migration patterns. These shifts disrupt ecological interactions and threaten species adapted to specific environmental conditions.

When a species disappears, its dependent organisms face extinction too. For instance, the loss of a host fish species can lead to the extinction of associated parasites and other species reliant on that host.

Natural Causes:
Natural disasters such as floods and earthquakes also contribute to loss of biodiversity by disrupting habitats and causing direct harm to species populations.


In conclusion, biodiversity loss, driven by habitat destruction, over-exploitation of species, introduction of alien species, environmental pollution, climate change, co-extinctions, and natural disasters, poses a severe threat to ecosystems and human well-being worldwide. Immediate action is crucial to mitigate these impacts and preserve Earth’s diverse biological heritage.

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