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Nuclear Suppliers Group

Nuclear Suppliers Group

The Nuclear Suppliers Group, often referred to as the “London Club“, comprises countries engaged in supplying nuclear technology. They convened in November 1975 in London with the objective of promoting nuclear nonproliferation. Their primary goal is to ensure that countries utilize nuclear exports exclusively for peaceful purposes. To achieve this, they established guidelines mandating countries to follow safeguards established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

These guidelines also cover laws and procedures within each member country to control nuclear materials, protection against theft, and restrictions on assisting countries with a proliferation risk. Additionally, they have strict controls on the export of sensitive technologies like uranium enrichment and reprocessing facilities to prevent them from falling into the wrong hands.

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What is Nuclear Suppliers Group and India?

India’s aspirations to join the NSG have stirred up more doubts and suspicions compared to any other country that sought membership in the past four decades. This skepticism stems from two key factors: Firstly, India stands out as the only NSG aspirant not to have signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Secondly, India has long perceived proliferation trade controls as tools of humiliation and discrimination, viewing them as neocolonialist and even racist measures employed by primarily Western nations to impede India’s technological progress.


  • The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of countries working together to control the spread of nuclear weapons technology. They were formed in response to India testing nuclear weapons in 1974.
  • The first meeting of the NSG took place in London in November 1975, earning them the nickname “London Club“.
  • India’s nuclear test revealed that technology intended for peaceful purposes could be weaponized, raising concerns among countries already within the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
  • Countries in the NSG felt the need to tighten controls on the export of nuclear materials, equipment, and technology to prevent further proliferation of weapons.
  • Involving nations outside of the NPT and Zangger Committee, such as France, was viewed positively as it strengthened global efforts against nuclear proliferation.
  • The NSG operates without a formal structure, and its guidelines are not legally binding.
  • Members of the group make decisions, including who can join, through consensus.
  • Currently, there are 48 member states in the NSG, all working together to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons technology.


  • The ability to supply items (including items in transit) covered by the Annexes to Parts 1 and 2 of the NSG Guidelines;
  • Adherence to the Guidelines and action in accordance with them;
  • Enforcement of a legally based domestic export control system. Which gives effect to the commitment to act in accordance with the Guidelines;
  • Full compliance with the obligations of one or more of nuclear non-proliferation agreements.
  • Support of international efforts towards non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their delivery vehicle.

Why NSG membership is important for India?

  • Membership will increase India’s access to state-of-the-art technology from the other members of the Group.
  • Access to technology and being allowed to produce nuclear equipment will give a boost to the Make in India program. That will, in turn, boost the economic growth of our country.
  • India committed to reducing its dependence on fossil fuels and ensuring that 40% of its energy comes from renewable and clean sources, as per its INDC under the Paris Climate Agreement.
  • In order to achieve this target, India needs to scale up nuclear power production. This can only happen if India gains access to the NSG.
  • Namibia is the fourth-largest producer of uranium and it agreed to sell the nuclear fuel to India in 2009. However, that hasn’t happened, as Namibia has signed the Pelindaba Treaty, which essentially controls the supply of uranium from Africa to the rest of the world.
  • If India joins the NSG, we can expect Namibia to drop such reservations.
  • India will get an opportunity to voice its concern if in case of change in the provision of the NSG guidelines.


  • Timely information on nuclear matters.
  • Contributes by way of information.
  • They will have confirmed credentials.
  • They can act as an instrument of harmonization and coordination.
  • It is a part of a very transparent process.

Read Also: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation ( NATO)

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