Wind energy is a popular, clean, renewable energy source with a substantially lower carbon footprint. India’s wind power-producing capacity has expanded dramatically in recent years. The overall installed wind power capacity was 40 GW as of 30 November 2021, making it the world’s fourth-highest installed wind power capacity.
What is Wind Energy?
- This takes advantage of wind motion to generate electricity.
- Wind motion is brought about by the heat from the sun, and rotation of the earth, mainly via the Coriolis Effect.
- Wind is a form of solar energy caused by a combination of three concurrent events:
- The sun unevenly heating the atmosphere
- Irregularities of the earth’s surface
- The rotation of the earth.
Working of Wind Turbine
- Wind turbines work on a simple principle: instead of using electricity to make wind—like a fan—wind turbines use wind to make electricity.
- Wind turns the propeller-like blades of a turbine around a rotor, which spins a generator, which creates electricity.
What are Wind Farm/Park?
Meaning & Types
A wind farm or wind park, also called a wind power station or wind power plant, is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electricity. Wind farms vary in size from a small number of turbines to several hundred wind turbines covering an extensive area.
Types of Wind Farm/Parks
- Onshore – Wind turbines harness the energy of moving air to generate electricity. Onshore wind refers to turbines located on land
- Offshore – offshore turbines are located out at sea or in freshwater.
What are the Challenges?
- The market has concentrated wind projects around a few substations of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, which were home to the strongest resource potential and lowest cost of land.
- This created bottlenecks and slowed down project activity and made it costlier than solar power.
- India’s track record has indicated that the wind installation market is a lumpy market.
- Considerable momentum has been built in the pipeline since 2017-2018, but inordinate delays in project execution have challenged the assumptions of developers.
- Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and supply chain constraints, the overall dues of electricity distribution companies (DISCOM) have ballooned.
- The outstanding payments to RE generators increased by 73% to ₹19,400 crores in December 2021, as compared to ₹11,200 crores in December 2020.
- The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, has set a target of 5.0 GW of offshore wind installations by 2022 and 30 GW by 2030
- Offshore wind power offers a plausible alternative as, Absence of any obstruction in the sea offers much better quality of wind and its conversion to electrical energy.
- However, high cost of installation with the requirement of Marine structures in place, hinders the expansion possibilities. But, feasibility studies could help better exploration.
What are the Related Initiatives?
- National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy:
- The main objective of the National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy, 2018 is to provide a framework for promotion of large grid connected wind-solar PV hybrid systems for optimal and efficient utilization of wind and solar resources, transmission infrastructure and land.
- National Offshore Wind Energy Policy:
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