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The Wide Disparities in Human Development

human development in india

In order to ensure a more equitable distribution of the benefits of growth, governments should emphasize human development in india with economic progress.

  1. HDI Measurement Method: The current article employs the Human Development Index (HDI), which utilizes four key indicators: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and Gross National Income (GNI) per capita.
  2. Data Sources and Indicators: The HDI calculation draws data from various sources. Life expectancy figures stem from the Sample Registration System, while mean and expected years of schooling data are sourced from NFHS-5. GNI per capita is approximated using gross state domestic product (GSDP) per capita, acting as a proxy for living standards.
  3. Methodology and HDI Scores: The method involves calculating the geometric mean of normalized indices across three dimensions of human development. HDI scores range between 0 and 1, with higher values indicating elevated levels of human development.

What is HDI?

  • The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistical measure designed to assess and compare the level of human development across various regions globally.
  • The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) established the HDI in 1990.
  • HDI comprises three key dimensions:
    1. Long and healthy life
    2. Knowledge
    3. A decent standard of living
  • HDI scores are on a scale from 0 to 1, with higher values signifying greater levels of human development.

Reasons for Poor HDI Performance:

  1. Unequal Economic Growth: Economic growth distribution uneven. Top 10% of Indians possess 77% wealth, causing disparities in vital services access—healthcare, education.
  2. Government Service Quality: Services quality (health, education) subpar. Primary education enrolment widespread; education quality lacking.
ReasonImpact on HDI
Unequal GrowthDisparities in service access
Economic DisparitiesGaps in healthcare, education
Government ServicesLow primary education quality

What is the status of subnational HDI of India?

  • Disparities in Human Development: Wide disparities in human development across Indian states. Highest HDI States: Delhi, Goa, Kerala, Sikkim, Chandigarh. Lowest HDI States: Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Assam (medium HDI).
  • Wealth vs. Development Gap: Gujarat and Haryana, despite high SGDP per capita, lag in human development (Rank 21 and 10).

Indian States HDI Ranking Report 2021-22:

  • Global Ranking and Comparisons: India positioned at 132 out of 191 countries in 2021-22 Human Development Report. Lags behind Bangladesh (129) and Sri Lanka (73).
  • HDI Measurement and Scale: HDI scores range from 0 to 1, indicating varying levels of human development. Higher scores denote greater development.
  • Subnational Variation in India: Subnational HDI in India showcases mixed progress. Delhi leads, while Bihar ranks lowest.
Top 5 HDI StatesBottom 5 HDI States
GoaUttar Pradesh
KeralaMadhya Pradesh
ChandigarhAssam (medium HDI)

Comparison with Neighboring Countries

CountryHDI Ranking
Sri Lanka73

What is the need of the hour?

  • Health care infrastructure  – Robust healthcare infrastructure is needed to eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities.
  • High literacy rates – High literacy rates is essential for human development.
  • Social protection schemes – There is a need for more social protection schemes.

Suggestions & way ahead

To achieve a more equitable distribution of growth benefits, governments should adopt a comprehensive strategy that:

  • Tackles income and gender inequalities.
  • Enhances accessibility to high-quality social services.
  • Confronts environmental concerns.
  • Catalyzes increased investment in vital social infrastructure, encompassing healthcare, education, and fundamental household provisions like clean water, sanitation, energy access, and connectivity.

India’s roadmap should spotlight heightened investments in human development and employment generation, with special focus on its burgeoning youth population.

Read Also: Wide Disparities in Human Development in India

Read more: human development index 2022 india rank, human development, undp full form,

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