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Subhash Chandra Bose, The Role Of Indian Freedom Fighter

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was a fierce nationalist, whose defiant patriotism made him one of the greatest freedom fighters...

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose was a fierce nationalist, whose defiant patriotism made him one of the greatest freedom fighters in Indian history. He was also credited with setting up the Indian Army as a separate entity from the British Indian Army – which helped to propel the freedom struggle.

Who was Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose?

  • Subhas Chandra Bose was one of the most eminent freedom fighters of India.
  • Born in Cuttack, in the province of Bengal to an affluent family. He was educated in Calcutta acquiring a degree in philosophy. Subhas Chandra Bose was Selected for the Indian Civil Services (ICS) but refused to take up service since he did not want to serve the British government.
  • Bose joined the Indian National Congress (Formed on December 28, 1885) in 1921. He also started a newspaper called ‘Swaraj’.
  • He was the President of the All India Youth Congress and also the Secretary of the Bengal State Congress. In 1924, he became the CEO of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation. In 1930, he became the Mayor of Calcutta.
  • Bose authored the book ‘The Indian Struggle’ which covers the Indian independence movement from 1920 to 1942. The book was banned by the British government.
  • He coined the term ‘Jai Hind’. His charisma and powerful personality inspired many people into the freedom struggle and continues to inspire Indians. He was called Netaji.

Contribution to Freedom Struggle

  • Association with C.R Das: He was associated with C.R. Das’ political endeavour, and was also jailed along with him. When C.R. Das was elected Mayor of Calcutta Cooperation, he nominated Bose as the chief executive. He was arrested for his political activities in 1924.
  • Trade union movements: He organised youth and promoted trade union movements. In 1930, he was elected Mayor of Calcutta, the same year he was elected the President of AITUC.
  • Association with congress: He stood for unqualified swaraj (independence), and opposed Motilal Nehru Report which spoke for dominion status for India.
    • He actively participated in the Salt Satyagraha of 1930 and vehemently opposed the suspension of Civil Disobedience Movement and signing of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931.
    • In the 1930s, he was closely associated with left politics in Congress along with Jawaharlal Nehru and M.N. Roy.
    • Because of the endeavour of the left group, the congress passed very far reaching radical resolutions in Karachi in 1931 which declared the main Congress aim as socialization of means of production besides guaranteeing fundamental rights.
  • Congress presidentship: Bose won the congress presidential elections at Haripura in 1938.
    • Next year at Tripuri, he again won the presidential elections against Gandhi’s candidate Pattabhi Sitarammayya.
    • Due to ideological differences with Gandhi, Bose left congress and found a new party, ‘the Forward Bloc’.
    • The purpose was to consolidate the political left and major support base in his home state Bengal.
  • Civil disobedience movement: When World War II began, he was again imprisoned for participation in civil disobedience and was put under house arrest.
  • Indian National Army: Bose manages to escape to Berlin by way of Peshawar and Afghanistan. He reached Japan and from there to Burma and organised the Indian National Army to fight the british and liberate India with the help of Japan.
    • He gave famous slogans ‘Jai Hind’ and ‘Dilli Chalo’. He died in a plane crash before realising his dreams.

Azad Hind

  • Indian Legion: Bose founded the free India centre in Berlin and created the Indian Legion out of the Indian prisoners of war who had previously fought for the British in North Africa prior to their capture by Axis forces.
    • In Europe, Bose sought help from Hitler and Mussolini for the liberation of India.
  • In Germany, he was attached to the special bureau for India which was responsible for the broadcasting on the German sponsored Azad Hind Radio.
    • On this radio, Bose on 6th July 1944, addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the ‘Father of the Nation’.

Death of Subhash Chandra Bose

  • Bose died of third-degree burns which he suffered in a plane crash in Taiwan on 18 August 1945.
  • However, many in India refused to believe that he had died.
  • Many enquiry committees were tasked with finding out what happened on that day.
  • The Figgess Report (1946) and the Shah Nawaz Committee (1956) concluded that Bose died in the plane crash in Taiwan.
  • The Khosla Commission (1970) also concurred with the previous reports.
  • But the Mukherjee Commission (2005) said that Bose’s death could not be proved. This report was rejected by the government.

Read also:- Indian National Congress Sessions

Subhash Chandra Bose, The Role Of Indian Freedom Fighter,Subhash Chandra Bose, The Role Of Indian Freedom Fighter

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