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Northern Mountains

The North and Northeastern Mountains are made up of two mountain ranges: the Northern and Eastern Mountains...

The North and Northeastern Mountains are made up of two mountain ranges: the Northern and Eastern MountainsThe Himalayas are made up of a succession of mountain ranges that run parallel to each other. The typical orientation of these mountains in the northwestern section of India is from northwest to southeast. The Himalayas run east-west in the Darjeeling and Sikkim areas, whereas they run southwest-northwest in Arunachal Pradesh. 

The North-Eastern and Northern Mountains

These sets of Indian mountains consist of the North-Eastern hills and Himalayas.

The Himalayan Mountain System
  • The Himalayas are young fold mountains and they stretch over the northern borders of India
  • The Himalayan ranges run from the Indus to the Brahmaputra river.
  • The altitudinal variations of the Himalayas are more significant in the eastern part than those in the western region.
  • The Indian mountains act as a physical barrier between east Asian and central Asian countries and India and protect the Indian subcontinent from the icy cold winds of central Asia.
  • They act as climatic, cultural, and drainage divides.
  • The northern mountain system in India is divided into three parts: The Himalayas, The trans-Himalayas, and The Purvanchal Hills.
  • Himalayas run from the west (Indus) to the east (Brahmaputra) direction along the northern boundary of India
  • They cover a distance of 2500 km. Their width varies from 400 km. in the west and 150 km. in the East
  • The Himalayas can be classified on many bases. There is also a west to the east division of the Himalayas based on the region and height of the Indian mountains
  • The general orientation of the Indian mountains is northwest to southeast in the northwestern side of India, towards the east-west direction in north Bengal and Sikkim, and towards the southwest to the northeast direction in  Arunachal and north-south direction in Mizoram, Nagaland, and Manipur region
Karakoram Range
  • These ranges form India’s frontier with Afghanistan and China. It is the northernmost range in the Trans-Himalayan Mountains
  • The average width of this range is 120 – 140 km. Most peaks hardly ever fall below 5,500 m
  • Mount K2 is the 2nd highest peak in the World. It is also known as Godwin Austen. 
Greater Himalayas
  • The Greater Himalayas run for 2400 km. from west to east, and their width is about 120-190 km
  • The average height of these mountains is 6000 m., and the average width is around 120 – 190 km
  • They are perennially snowbound, and several glaciers descend from this range
  • Mount Everest (8850 m.) the highest mountain in the World, and Mt. Kanchenjunga (8586 m.), the highest peak in India lies in this range
Himachal or the Lesser Himalayas
  • Lesser Himalayas, Middle Himalayas, or Himachal is the middle section of the vast Himalaya Mountain. The range lies between the Great Himalayas to the northeast and the Shivalik range to the southeast. The average height of these mountains is 3700 – 4500 m., and the average width is 50 km
  • The Middle Himalayas are famous for their valleys like Kulu, Kashmir, Kangra, etc
  • The most popular hill stations in these Indian mountains are Shimla, Ranikhet, Darjeeling, Nainital, etc
Kashmir Himalayas
  • Karakoram, Zaskar, Ladakh, Pir Panjal, and Dhaola Dhar are the main ranges of this section
  • The Kashmir Himalayas’ northeastern region is the cold desert between the Greater Himalayas and the Karakoram ranges. The northern slopes are gentler, bare, and show plains with lakes, while the southern slopes are steep, rugged, and forested. Siachen and Baltoro glaciers are part of Kashmir Himalaya
  • The world-famous Valley of Kashmir and the famous Dal Lake are located between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal range.  It is also well-known for its Karewa formations, which grows saffron, known locally as Zafran
The Uttarakhand and  Himachal Himalayas
  • This region is roughly located between the Kali river in the east and Ravi river in the west and drains between India’s major river systems, the Indus and the Ganga
  • The rivers Beas, Ravi, and Satluj (tributaries of Indus) and the Yamuna and Ghagra (tributaries of Ganga) flow through this area
  • All three Himalayan ranges, namely the Great Himalaya, the Lesser Himalayas, also known as Nagtibha and Dhauladhar in Himachal Pradesh, and the Shiwalik range from north to south, are prominent in this section
  • The places of pilgrimage like Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, and Hemkund Sahib are situated in this region
The Arunachal Himalayas
  • The Arunachal Himalayas rise from the Bhutan Himalayas in the east to the east of the Diphu pass. Kangtu and Namcha Barwa are significant mountain peaks of the region
  • The Brahmaputra flows from the north to the south while crossing the Namcha Barwa. Kameng, Dihang, Subansiri, Lohit and Dibang are some of the important rivers of this region
The Eastern Hills
  • The eastern hills are included in the Himalayan system and they align north to south
  • In the north, they are called by different names such as Naga hills, Patkai Bum, the Manipur hills. In the south, locals call them Lushai hills or Mizo. Several tribal groups live near this region
  • Manipur’s physiography is different owing to the presence of ‘Loktak’ lake in the central part. Mizoram, or the ‘Molasses basin,’ is composed of unconsolidated deposits.

Importance of Himalayas

  • Himalaya High stands like a huge wall on the northern border of India Therefore, it forms a Protective Border.
  • The Himalayan range is working to block the extremely dry cold winds from Northeast and Central Asia.
  • The Himalayas are doing a great job of blocking the monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean, Which affects the rains of India.
  • The Himalayan mountain range is completely covered with ice, from which many Glaciers and small and large streams originate.
  • The Himalayas cover 52% of the total forest area of India.
  • The Himalayas are rich in deposits of coal, copper, zinc, cobalt, nickel, gold, silver, antimony, limestone, tungsten, and other valuable minerals.
  • There are many holy places of worship in the Himalayan mountain range like Vaishnav Devi, Badrinath-Kedarnath, Kailas Parvat, Gangotri Yamunotri, Rishikesh, Haridwar, Devprayag.
  • The Himalayan tourism sector has developed tremendously.

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