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Internet Of Things – IOT

The Internet of Things (IoT) links devices in a network for seamless communication without human input. It manages traffic, monitors health, saves energy, and controls inventory. Data is vital for IoT, turned into useful information through digitization. Digitization connects the world, allowing data sharing across systems and enabling device connectivity and information exchange.

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How Digitization will help IoT

  • The IoT merges physical, digital, cyber, and virtual realms, demanding strong information processing aided by digitization.
  • Complete digitization ensures wider internet connectivity, increasing awareness about IoT and its applications among individuals.
  • India’s Digital India mission has fueled the growth of digitization, paralleled by a burgeoning IoT market. These advancements offer several benefits:
    • Economic Standardization: IoT and digitization upgrade businesses, banks, and trade, making them resilient and efficient, even in tough times.
    • Efficient Payment Methods: Seamless transactions without physical contact between consumers and producers become commonplace, enhancing convenience.
    • Tax Evasion Reduction: Digitization discourages tax evasion as expenditure and income become transparent, facilitating government oversight.
    • Facilitative Environment: IoT makes tasks like managing insurance, paying bills, regulating energy, and handling loan payments easier, saving time and boosting India’s economy.
    • Improved Quality of Life: In healthcare, IoT helps monitor vital signs like cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar, spotting issues early and cutting costs.

Major Components of Internet of Things

Various components are required to work together in order to facilitate Internet of Things (IoT). These are as follows:

  • Things or devices: These include smart thermostats, wearable fitness trackers, connected home appliances, industrial machinery that has embedded sensors, processors, and communication hardware to collect and transmit data.
    • IoT devices are connected to the internet network through various means, such as Wi-Fi, cellular networks, Bluetooth, etc.
  • Gateway: Gateway ensures interoperability of the connected devices and sensors.
    • It manages the bidirectional data traffic between different networks and protocols.
  • User interface: User interfaces are the visible and tangible part of the IoT system that users can access, interact with, and feed input and response to.
  • Cloud: IoT cloud offers tools to collect, process, manage, and store huge amounts of data in real time.
    • Industries and services can easily access this data remotely and make critical decisions when necessary.
  • Analytics: Itis the process of converting analog data from billions of smart devices and sensors into useful insights that can be interpreted and used for detailed analysis.
    • It manages and improves the IoT system.

Working of Internet of Things (IoT)

IoT gadgets typically come equipped with a bit of smarts onboard, allowing them to collect information and take actions without needing us humans to step in. Here’s a breakdown of how they generally operate:

  • Data Ingestion: IoT devices or sensors collect data from the environment and provide inputs such as temperature and humidity for further processing in clouds.
  • Data transmission: The data is transmitted to the cloud via Gateway.
    • Gateway uses both cellular and satellite communication to transmit data.
  • Data processing: Data processed at cloud level generates optimal response.
    • For example, to check the temperature range of an Air Conditioner.
  • Data visualization: It is about showing information and alerting for proactive response.
  • Data analysis and prediction: Data analytics make use of collected data over time to provide actionable insight. It helps in predicting future events.
    • For example, by analysing data, future malfunctioning of machines can be predicted.

Applications of Internet of Things

  • Smart Homes: Imagine coming home to lights that adjust themselves, appliances you control with a tap, and a thermostat that knows your preferred temperature. Smart homes make everyday tasks easier by using technology like embedded systems and home automation to create a convenient living environment.
  • Health and Wellbeing (Internet of Medical Things):
    • For Patients: Wearable devices like fitness bands keep track of your health stats, such as heart rate and oxygen levels, helping you stay on top of your wellbeing.
    • For Doctors: By analyzing data from these devices, doctors can tailor treatments more effectively, ensuring better patient care.
    • For Hospitals: Hospitals can use IoT devices to keep track of essential medical equipment, ensuring they’re always where they’re needed most.
  • Smart Industry: Industrial IoT enhances productivity by leveraging real-time data analysis and automation to streamline operations and uphold high-quality output, fostering what experts term as Industry 4.0.
  • Smart Energy: IoT-enabled smart grids empower consumers and governments to make smarter decisions about energy usage, ultimately saving electricity and improving sustainability.
  • Smart Agriculture: Through the use of IoT devices and data analysis, farmers can optimize their farming processes by monitoring soil moisture, nutrients, and other key factors, leading to increased production and profitability.
  • Smart Environment: Environmental sensors connected to smartphones provide real-time updates on factors like humidity, temperature, and pollutants, helping us better understand and manage our surroundings for a healthier planet.
  • IoT in Disaster Management: IoT technologies play a crucial role in quick hazard mapping and early warning systems, like the National Advance Seismic System in the US, which provides real-time information for emergency response.
  • Smart Water Monitoring: By deploying sensor-based IoT devices, initiatives like India’s National Jal Jeevan Mission can monitor water quality in every village, ensuring safe drinking water for all.
  • Smart Cities: Leveraging IoT, smart cities improve infrastructure, optimize resource usage, and enhance operational efficiency. From managing traffic with sensors and cameras to optimizing waste collection routes, IoT transforms urban living for the better.
  • IoT in Defense: The Internet of Military Things (IoMT) revolutionizes warfare by enabling real-time connectivity among devices, enhancing combat operations and intelligence gathering, such as the Joint All Domain Command and Control system in the US.

Challenges of IoT

  • Lack of easy and cheaper access to smartphones
  • Cyber frauds and cyber crimes
  • Digital Divide
  • Privacy issues
  • Use by non state actors to create security threat
  • Bing MNC companies has more access to resources and thus can bare inequality

Read also: Digital Health Incentives Scheme (DHIS)

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