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Factors Determining Climate of India

India’s climate is classified as a monsoon climate. This type of climate is mostly found in Asia’s south and southeast. There are few factors determining climate of India.

  1. factors related to location and relief, and
  2. factors related to air pressure and winds.

Factors related to location and relief

  • The Tropic of Cancer runs east-west through the central part of India.
  • As a result, the northern part of India is in the subtropical and temperate zone, while the southern part is in the tropical zone.
  • As it’s closer to the equator, the tropical zone has high temperatures all year with a small daily and annual range.
  • Due to its distance from the equator, the area north of the Tropic of Cancer has an extreme climate with a wide daily and annual temperature range.
The Himalayan Mountains
  • The Himalayas and their extensions in the north act as an effective climatic divide.
  • The subcontinent is protected from the cold northern winds by the towering mountain chain, which acts as an invincible shield.
  • These chilly winds blowing across central and eastern Asia, originating near the Arctic Circle.
  • The Himalayas also trap monsoon winds, forcing them to disperse their moisture across the Indian subcontinent.
Distribution of Land and Water
  • India is surrounded on three sides by the Indian Ocean in the south and girdled by a high and continuous mountain wall in the north.
  • The water heats and cools slowly in comparison to the landmass.
  • In and around the Indian subcontinent, this differential heating of land and sea creates different air pressure zones in different seasons.
  • The direction of monsoon winds is reversed due to a difference in air pressure.
Distance from the Sea
  • Large coastal areas have an equable climate due to their long coastline.
  • Areas in India’s interior are far removed from the sea’s moderating influence. Thus,Climate extremes exist in these areas.
  • As a result, residents of Mumbai and the Konkan coast have only a little perception of temperature extremes and seasonal weather patterns.
  • Seasonal differences in weather in the interior of the country, such as Delhi, Kanpur, and Amritsar, have an impact on all aspects of life.
  • As you get higher, the temperature drops.
  • Places in the mountains are cooler than places on the plains due to thin air. Agra and Darjeeling, for example, are on the same latitude, but Agra’s January temperature is 16°C, while Darjeeling’s is only 4°C.
  • Temperature, air pressure, wind direction and speed, amount and distribution of rainfall are all affected by India’s physiography or relief.
  • During June-September, the windward sides of the Western Ghats and Assam receive a lot of rain, whereas the southern plateau stays dry due to its leeward position along the Western Ghats.

 (i) Distribution of air pressure and winds on the surface of the earth.

(ii) Upper air circulation caused by factors controlling global weather and the inflow of different air masses and jet streams.

(iii) Inflow of western cyclones generally known as disturbances during the winter season and tropical depressions during the south-west monsoon period into India, creating weather conditions favourable to rainfall.

(iv)The mechanism of these three factors can be understood with reference to winter and summer seasons of the year separately.

Factors Determining Climate of India

Read also : Climate Change

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