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Evaluating DNA report as Evidence 

Evaluating DNA report as Evidence technology in criminal investigations and trials has become an important tool for forensic evidence.

Why in News?

The use of DNA technology in criminal investigations and trials has become an important tool for forensic evidence.

However, in its recent judgments, the Supreme Court has been critical of admitting DNA reports as clinching evidence in criminal cases.

What Is DNA?

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the building block for the human body; virtually every cell contains DNA.

The DNA in people’s blood is the same as the DNA in their saliva, skin tissue, hair, and bone. Importantly, DNA does not change throughout a person’s life.

Careful sampling is a must:

The first responder on the scene of crime needs to ensure that the biological sample is dried under room temperature and sealed in a paper.

The sample should be free from any contamination due to humic acid, which is a primary constituent of the soil. Touching areas where DNA may exist, and talking, sneezing and coughing over evidence must be avoided. 

No other human contact should be allowed, and stained articles must be packed separately.

The investigating officer (IO) must ensure that the properly sealed samples reach the forensic science laboratory (FSL) in the stipulated time period, maintaining proper chain of custody.

The Union Home Ministry had provided a sizeable number of sexual assault evidence collection kits containing blood collection cards and

EDTA vials in 2020 to all the States so that the biological samples are collected and preserved in the best possible manner for DNA analysis. The States need to continue with this good practice.

All stakeholders of the criminal justice system need to be sensitized about the techniques of DNA analysis.

Chain of Custody:

The chain of custody is important in ensuring that the DNA evidence is reliable.

The Court has questioned the collection and sealing of the samples sent for examination, and whether the expert reliably applied the techniques.

Therefore, it is important to maintain a proper chain of custody of the samples from collection to analysis and presentation in court.


The use of DNA reports as evidence in court cases requires careful sampling, proper extraction, and analysis,

Along with the mention of RMP in the DNA report.

The forensic expert must reliably apply the techniques, and standard guidelines need to be established for admitting DNA reports as credible evidence.

The criminal justice system must be sensitized to the techniques of DNA analysis to ensure justice is served.

As the evidence of DNA matching in criminal cases, particularly those based on circumstantial evidence, acquires great importance and

Some standard guidelines need to be laid down by the Court for admitting the DNA expert’s report as credible evidence.

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