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Anak Krakatau Volcano in Indonesia

Anak Krakatau

Anak Krakatau volcano in Indonesia’s Sunda Strait has been quite active lately, erupting multiple times since late Friday. The eruptions have shot ash up to 3 kilometers into the sky. This is the longest eruption since the volcano’s big collapse in 2018, which sadly led to a dangerous tsunami.

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About Volcanoes of Indonesia

  • Indonesia is right in the middle of the action, known as the Pacific Ring of Fire. This region is like the hotbed for earthquakes and volcanoes.
  • Believe it or not, Indonesia holds the record for the most active volcanoes in any country. There’s a whopping 130 active ones, not to mention a bunch of snoozing ones too!
  • Picture this – Indonesia is like the dance floor where several tectonic plates come together and have a serious party. You’ve got the Eurasian, Pacific, Australian, and Philippine Sea plates all jiving in one place.

Types of Volcanoes

Indonesia boasts a variety of volcanoes, each with its unique characteristics.

  • Stratovolcanoes: Picture these as tall, cone-shaped volcanoes with steep sides. They’re made up of layers of both lava and ash. You’ll find this type all over Indonesia—it’s the most common.
  • Shield Volcanoes: Imagine volcanoes shaped like shields. These have a broad, rounded appearance and are formed when runny lava flows pile up. They’re quite different from the pointy stratovolcanoes.
  • Calderas: Think of calderas as giant, bowl-shaped hollows in the ground. They’re created when a volcano collapses after a really massive eruption. So, it’s like the volcano implodes, leaving a big, basin-like dent.

Active Volcanoes

Mount Merapi (Central Java):

  • Nestled in Central Java, Mount Merapi stands as one of Indonesia’s most active and perilous volcanoes.
  • Over the course of history, it has frequently erupted, posing a continuous threat to the surrounding areas.

Mount Agung (Bali):

  • Bali’s spiritual icon, Mount Agung, is held sacred by the Balinese people.
  • In 2017, a significant eruption occurred, leading to the evacuation of thousands of residents in response to the potential dangers posed by the volcanic activity.

Mount Bromo (East Java):

  • Found in East Java, Mount Bromo is a hotspot for tourists, offering breathtaking landscapes and captivating sunrise views.
  • Its dramatic scenery makes it a must-visit destination, attracting visitors from around the world.

Mount Rinjani (Lombok Island):

  • Situated on Lombok Island, Mount Rinjani claims the title of Indonesia’s second-highest volcano.
  • Renowned for its stunning crater lake, Segara Anak, this volcano is not just a geological wonder but also a picturesque attraction for nature enthusiasts.

Impact and Safety Measures

  • No one got hurt in the recent volcanic eruption, and thankfully, no one had to leave their homes.
  • The closest town is about 16 and a half kilometers from the volcano, so it’s quite a distance away.
  • Before the eruption, officials told people to keep a safe distance of 5 kilometers from the volcano. Luckily, everyone listened and stayed out of harm’s way.

Changes in Anak Krakatau Island

  • Anak Krakatau island has shrunk significantly since the eruption in 2018.
  • Its current size is just a quarter of what it used to be.
  • The top of the volcano’s crater is now 159 meters tall, a considerable drop from its previous height of 338 meters.

Historical Context

  • Anak Krakatau is like the child of the well-known Krakatau volcano, which had a huge eruption in 1883, causing a global cooling period.
  • In 2018, Anak Krakatau collapsed, creating a tsunami that the Center’s 2019 study focused on. This tsunami sadly caused over 430 deaths and forced 40,000 people to leave their homes.

Read Also: Seismic Noise – UPSC

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