- Raja Ram Mohan Roy was popularly known as the father of Indian Renaissance.
- With his fight against social prejudice and concern for humanity, he inaugurated a new lease of life for Indians.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born on 22nd May, 1773 in a Brahmin family in the village of Radhanagar near Krislinagar in Bengal.
- With hisgifted brain, he learnt many languages and scriptures of different religions like Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sufism, Buddhism etc.
- He was influenced by western culture and spread the message of unity religions and rationality.
- He was against the practice of idol worship, blind faith and religious rituals.
- In 1803, his first book ‘Tuhjat-ul-Muwahhidin, was published, where he argued for Monotheism.
- He founded the Atmiya Subha in 1815 and on 20th August, 1828,the Brahmo Samaj was orthodox Hindus and fanatic Christian missionaries who challenged his ideas.
- Instead of establishing a separate religion, Ram Mohan wanted to reform Hinduism.
- He died on 27th September, 1833 in England.
(a) Religious –
- As a Hindu, Ram Mohan Roy was well aware as the work points from which Hinduism was suffering. On the basis of Vedas and Upanishads, he provided a new life to Indian Society.
- He interpreted religion with reason and opposed idol worship and ritualism.
- He believed that every religion passes the same truth.
- He civilized the ritualism of Christianity and refused to accepted Christ as the incur nation of God.
- He wanted to simplify and modernize the Hindu religion being influenced by the western concept of reason and scientific thought.
(b) Social –
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy and his Brahmo Samaj attacked all social evils from which the society was suffering.
- He led a crusade against the practice of Sati, polygamy, child marriage, cast system, untouchability, purdah system and use of intoxicants.
- He convinced government to implement Anti Sati Act, 1829.
- He supported inter cast marriage, women education, widow remarriage etc.
(c) Educational –
- Brahmo Samaj adopted practical steps to propagate its religious and social ideas.
- Ram Mohan Roy championed the cause of English Language and western system of education and supported the move of Lord Macaulay.
- He started English School, The Hindu College, and Veclanta College at Calcutta.
- He was called the father of Indian Journalism .
- He edited Bengali newspaper ‘Samwad Kaumudni’ and Persian newspaper ‘Mirat-ul-Akbar’.
- As a champion of the liberty of press, he also opposed all sorts of restrictions imposed on it.
(d) Economic –
- Though he himself belonged to a Zamindar background, yet he wanted the liberation of the poor tenants who were exploit by Zamindar and their agents.
- Roy wanted the revenue to be fixed with the cultivators in Bengal. He opposed the heavy duty imposed on Indian goods.
(e) Political –
- Roy also believed in freedom of man and opposed racial superiority of Europeans. Though he did not demand independence for Indian, yet he fought for civil liberties of people.
Roy paved the way on which other Hindu Social religious reforms could treated.
After his death, Dwarka Nath Tagore took up the charge of the Brahmo Samaj. Subsequently it faced a division and declined.
By Nishat Azmi
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