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Operation Smiling Buddha

Operation Smiling Buddha the world that India had entered an elite group of nations whose members possessed nuclear capabilities..

Context:- Announcing to the world that India had entered an elite group of nations whose members possessed nuclear capabilities. India conducted its first nuclear tests on May 18, 1974, in Pokhran, Rajasthan, as part of the ‘Smiling Buddha’ operation.

India’s Nuclear Policy and Nonproliferation Treaty

Underpinning India’s nuclear aspirations were the prevailing international dynamics, including the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union.

The devastating use of nuclear weapons in World War II and subsequent nuclear tests by major powers necessitated the establishment of regulations to prevent mass destruction.

However, India objected to the treaty’s discriminatory nature, which favored the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.


India and Nuclear Weapons

Although India has not released any official statements about the size of its nuclear arsenal, recent estimates suggest that India has around 200 nuclear weapons.

India is a member of three multilateral export control regimes — the Missile Technology Control Regime, Wassenaar Arrangement and Australia Group.

It has signed and ratified the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention.

India is also a subscribing state to the Hague Code of Conduct.

India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory.

India previously possessed chemical weapons, but voluntarily destroyed its entire stockpile in 2009

one of the seven countries to meet the OPCW extended deadline.

India maintains a “no first use” nuclear policy and has developed a nuclear triad capability as a part of its “Minimum Credible Deterrence” doctrine.

Chemical weapons

In 1992, India signed the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), becoming one of the original signatories of the CWC in 1993, and ratified it on 2 September 1996.

Nuclear weapons

Nehru pursued a policy of formally foregoing nuclear weapons while at the same time constructing a civilian nuclear energy program,

and by extension the capability to make a nuclear bomb.

India built its first research reactor in 1956 and its first plutonium reprocessing plant by 1964.

India’s nuclear program can trace its origins to March 1944 and its 3-stage efforts in technology were established by

Homi Jehangir Bhabha when he founded the nuclear research center, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research.

India’s loss to China in the 1962 war provided the impetus for developing nuclear weapons as a means of deterring potential Chinese aggression.



India’s first nuclear tests in Pokhran, Rajasthan, in 1974 marked a significant milestone in its nuclear journey.

Despite initial international backlash, India has worked to project itself as a responsible nuclear power, leading to increased acceptance and recognition on the global stage.

As India continues to pursue its nuclear ambitions, its engagement with  international nonproliferation efforts and its quest for

NSG membership highlight its commitment to maintaining peace and stability in the.

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Operation Smiling Buddha,Operation Smiling Buddha

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