State PCS

Edit Template
Edit Template

Jammu & Kashmir: A Crucial Part of India’s History

Jammu & Kashmir

Key Facts

  • After the revocation of the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution in 2019, the region was reorganized into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east, effective from 31 October 2019.
  • Jammu and Kashmir is separated from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan by the Line of Control to the west and north.
  • The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.
  • It is located to the north of the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and to the west of Ladakh.
  • Notable national parks in the region include Dachigam National Park (known for the hangul or Kashmir stag), Hemis National Park (famous for Snow Leopard, Asiatic ibex, and Argali), Kishtwar National Park (known for Himalayan Snow Cock and brown bear), and Kazinag National Park (famous for Markhor and Himalayan Musk Deer).
  • The region produces the finest Pashmina (Cashmere) wool, with the best quality coming from the Changthang plateau of Ladakh and the Chegu breed of goat in the eastern Himalayas.
  • Basohli is renowned worldwide for Basohli painting.
  • Srinagar boasts Asia’s largest Tulip Garden.
  • The Banihal-Qazigund rail link includes India’s longest railway tunnel (approximately 11 km).
  • The Cold Desert Cultural Landscape of India stretches from Ladakh in the north to Kinnaur (Himachal Pradesh) in the south.
  • Shikaras, traditional small wooden boats, and houseboats are common features in the region’s lakes and rivers.
  • The China-Pakistan Economic corridor (CPEC) passes through the Gilgit-Baltistan region, which is part of Pakistan-administered Kashmir, and this has led to objections from India, hindering its participation in the One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative.
  • The Shanti Stupa, a white-colored domed structure in Chandspa, was built by a Japanese Buddhist organization to celebrate 2500 years of Buddhism and promote world peace. It is known for its gilt panels depicting the life stories of Lord Buddha.
  • The hangul, or Kashmiri stag, is the only species of European red deer found in India.
  • In Ladakh, the Bon religion, which worships the forces of nature, is practiced.
  • The houseboats on Dal Lake are a significant attraction.
  • The Mughal Gardens of Srinagar are a popular tourist destination.
  • Kashmir is renowned for traditional crafts, including carpets, shawls, paper mache, and walnut wood craft.
  • Kalhana, the first Indian history writer, provided an account of Kashmir’s history before the 10th century AD.
  • The greatest Muslim king of early medieval Kashmir was Zain-ul-Abidin, who ruled from 1420 to 1470.
  • In 1587, Akbar annexed Kashmir into the Mughal Empire.
  • Ladakh is also known as “Little Tibet.”
  • Urdu written in the Persian script is the official language of the state.
  • Kawa, a traditional green tea with spices and almond, is a popular beverage in the chilly winter climate of Kashmir.
  • The Siachen Glacier is the longest Himalayan glacier at 70 km (43 mi) in length.
  • The Ranbir Canal is the largest irrigation network in the state.
  • The Martand Canal is one of the oldest canals in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • High-quality cricket bats, known as Kashmir willow, are made from wood in Kashmir.
  • The state has the maximum number of Ramsar sites (4) in India.
  • The Indus Waters Treaty, brokered by the World Bank, was signed on September 19, 1960.
  • Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.
  • The name “Srinagar” means the “City of Lakshmi, the Goddess of Wealth,” and it was founded by Ashoka the Great.
  • The present city of Srinagar was built by Pravarsena II adjoining the old city.
  • India’s first floating post office is located in Kashmir.
  • The region was governed by Article 370 and 35A, which granted special autonomy and privileges to Jammu and Kashmir within the Indian Union. However, these articles were revoked in 2019, leading to the reorganization of the region into union territories.

State Animal / Bird / Tree / Flower

  • Animal: Hangul
  • Bird: Black-necked crane
  • Tree: Chinar
  • Flower: Lotus


  • Chenab
  • Jhelum
  • Indus
  • Zanskar
  • Suru
  • Nubra
  • Shyok
  • Kishan Ganga
  • Ravi
  • Tawi


  • Dal Lake
  • Pangong Tso
  • Tso Moriri
  • Manasbal Lake
  • Sheshnag Lake

Geographical Features

  • Mountain Ranges: Karakoram range, Ladakh range, Zanskar range, Pir Panjal
  • Valleys: Kashmir valley, Tawi valley, Chenab valley, Poonch valley, Sind valley, Lidder valley
  • Great Plains of Northern India

Natural Ecosystem

  • Sub-Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests
  • Sub-Tropical Pine Forests
  • Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests
  • Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests
  • Alpine Forests
  • Forests in Cold Arid Zone

Protected Areas

  • Dachigam National Park (Srinagar)
  • Kishtwar National Park (Kishtwar)
  • Hemis High Altitude National Park (Ladakh)
  • Salim Ali National Park (Srinagar)
  • Kazinag National Park (Baramula)
  • Changthang cold desert wildlife sanctuary
  • Karakoram (Nubra Shyok) wildlife sanctuary
  • Overa-Aru wildlife sanctuary
  • Gulmarg wildlife sanctuary
  • Lachipora wildlife sanctuary
  • Limber wildlife sanctuary
  • Surinsar-Mansar wildlife sanctuary
  • Hirpora wildlife sanctuary
  • Baltal-Thajwas wildlife sanctuary
  • Hokersar wildlife sanctuary
  • Jasrota wildlife sanctuary
  • Nandini wildlife sanctuary
  • Rajparian wildlife sanctuary
  • Ramnagar Rakha wildlife sanctuary
  • Trikuta wildlife sanctuary

Ramsar Wetlands

  • Surinsar-Mansar Lakes
  • Hokersar
  • Wular Lake
  • Tsomoriri

Mountain Peaks

  • Golden Throne
  • Nanga Parbat
  • K2
  • Gasherbrum


  • Zoji La Pass
  • Changla Pass
  • Khardung La Pass
  • Shingo La
  • Banihal Pass


  • Saffron festival
  • Gurez Festival
  • Tihar
  • Navroz
  • Eid
  • Urs
  • Shab-e-Miraj
  • Bahumela
  • Shikara Festival
  • Jhiri Mela

Dances & Music Forms

  • Kudd
  • Dogri/Pahari music
  • Hafixa
  • Bacha/Nagma dance
  • Rouff
  • Dhumal
  • Geetru

Folk Theatre

  • Bhand Pather

Arts & Craft Forms

  • Kar-i-Kalamdan (lacquered pen cases made of paper pulp)
  • Kashida embroidery
  • Basholi Painting
  • Calico Painting
  • Phulkari
  • Carpets
  • Kashmiri Shawls
  • Wood carving
  • Chainstitch
  • Crewel
  • Papier-mache
  • Namda
  • Clay Moulding
  • Ladakh Carpet and Pashmina Weaving
  • Thanka and Fresha Painting

Power Plants

  • Uri-I Hydroelectric Project (Jhelum)
  • Baglihar Stage- I Hydroelectric Project (Chenab)
  • Ranjit Sagar Dam Hydroelectric Project (Ravi)
  • Chutak Hydroelectric Project (Suru)
  • Nimmo – Bazgo Hydroelectric Project (Indus)


  • Samstangling
  • Hemis monastery

Important Minerals

  • Limestone
  • Gypsum
  • Marble
  • Coal
  • Magnesite
  • Borax
  • Graphite

GI Tags

  • Kashmiri carpet
  • Saffron (Lachcha, Mongra, Gucci)
  • Kashmir Pashmina
  • Kashmir Sozani Art
  • Ear shawl
  • Kashmir Paper Machie
  • Kashmir Walnut Wood Carving
  • Khatamband

Read Also: Jharkhand: A Goldmine of Mineral Resources

Demo Class/Enquiries

blog form

More Links
What's New
IAS NEXT is a topmost Coaching Institute offering guidance for Civil & Judicial services like UPSC, State PCS, PCS-J exams since more than 10 years.
Contact Us
Social Icon

Copyright ©  C S NEXT EDUCATION. All Rights Reserved