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India Joins Artemis Accords

India's Prime Minister announced India's decision to join the Artemis Accords during the visit to the United States.


Recently, India’s Prime Minister announced India’s decision to join the Artemis Accords during the visit to the United States.

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) will collaborate to send Indian astronauts, trained at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2024.

What are Artemis Accords?                

  • Artemis Accords are established by the U.S. State Department and NASA with seven other founding members: Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom in 2020 for setting common principles to govern civil exploration and use of outer space, the moon, Mars, comets, and asteroids, for peaceful purposes.
    • It builds upon the foundation of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967.
    • India became the 27th country to sign the nonbinding Artemis Accords.

Commitments under the Accords:

  • Peaceful Purposes: The signatories will implement memorandum of understanding (MOUs) between governments or agencies to conduct space activities for peaceful purposes in accordance with international law.
  • Common Infrastructure: Signatories recognize the importance of common exploration infrastructure to enhance scientific discovery and commercial utilization.
  • Registration and Data Sharing: Relevant space objects are registered, and scientific data is openly shared in a timely manner. Private sectors are exempt unless acting on behalf of a signatory.
  • Preservation of Heritage: Signatories are expected to preserve historic landing sites, artifacts, and evidence of activity on celestial bodies.
  • Utilization of Space Resources: Utilization of space resources should support safe and sustainable activities and not interfere with other signatories’ activities. Information on location and nature must be shared to prevent interference.
  • Mitigation of Debris: Signatories plan for the safe disposal of spacecraft and limit the generation of harmful debris.

What are the Main Missions under the Artemis Program?

  • Artemis-I: Unmanned Mission to the Moon
  • Artemis-II: Crewed Lunar Flyby Mission
  • Artemis-III: Human Return to the Moon

What are the Benefits and Challenges for India Related to the Accord?

  • India’s participation in the Artemis Accords facilitates access to advanced training, technological advancements, and scientific opportunities.
  • India can leverage the Artemis programme to advance its own lunar exploration goals, such as the Chandrayaan-3 mission.
  • Collaborating with NASA would enhance India’s capabilities for the Gaganyaan human mission and future ambitious space missions.
  • Also, India’s cost-effective missions and innovative approach will benefit the Artemis program, promoting mutual advancements in space exploration.
  • China and Russia, as other major space powers, have their own plans for lunar exploration, and people might perceive the possibility of aligning with the U.S. against them.
  • The uncertainty over the legal status and implications of the Artemis Accords, especially regarding the provision that allows for unregulated mining on the moon and other celestial bodies.
  • The need to balance its commitments under the Artemis Accords with its obligations under other existing or emerging multilateral frameworks or treaties on outer space.

FAQs about India Joins Artemis Accords

What are the Artemis Accords?

The Artemis Accords are a set of principles established by the U.S. State Department and NASA, along with several other countries, to govern civil exploration and use of outer space, particularly the moon, Mars, comets, and asteroids. The accords aim to ensure peaceful purposes, common infrastructure, registration and data sharing, preservation of heritage, utilization of space resources, and mitigation of debris.

How many countries have signed the Artemis Accords?

India became the 27th country to sign the Artemis Accords. The founding members include Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

What are the main missions under the Artemis Program?

The main missions under the Artemis Program are as follows:
Artemis I: Unmanned mission to the Moon.
Artemis II: Crewed lunar flyby mission.
Artemis III: Human return to the Moon.

What are the benefits for India in joining the Artemis Accords?

By joining the Artemis Accords, India gains access to advanced training, technological advancements, and scientific opportunities through collaboration with NASA and other participating countries. It provides a platform for India to enhance its own lunar exploration goals, such as the Chandrayaan-3 mission, and strengthen capabilities for future human missions, such as the Gaganyaan mission. Collaborative efforts can lead to mutual advancements in space exploration.

Read also:- Chandrayaan – 3

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