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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

Why in news: –

Millions of people living with chronic hepatitis B are unaware they have the virus.

  • Hepatitis – It means inflammation of the liver.
  • Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can cause hepatitis.


  • Viral hepatitis – Hepatitis A , B, C, D and E
  • Non-viral hepatitis – Autoimmune hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, and drug-induced hepatitis.
-Contaminated Food/Water
-Blood to blood
-Blood to blood
-Sex (less common)
-Blood to
-Only occurs when HBV is present
-Contaminated Food/Water
Chronic InfectionNoYesYesYesGenotype 3 only
Prevention-Pre-exposure vaccinePre-exposure vaccine-Screening donor blood -Harm reduction-Pre-exposure -vaccine-Ensure safe
drinking water, -Avoid undercooked pork & shellfish
Treatment-Management of symptoms-Treatment for management of chronic infectionTreatment/cure for chronic infection-No approved treatments-Management of symptoms
  • Hepatitis B – Caused by the hepatitis B virus.
  • Types – The infection can be acute (short and severe) or chronic (long term).
  • Transmission – Through contact with infected body fluids like blood, saliva, vaginal fluids and semen.
  • From mother to child during birth, body fluids during sex with an infected partner, unsafe injections or exposures to sharp instruments.
  • Symptoms – Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, feeling very tired, nausea & vomiting, pain in the abdomen, etc.
  • Prevention – There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B but there is no vaccine available for hepatitis C.
  • Treatment – There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B.
  • Chronic hepatitis B infection can be treated with oral medicines, including tenofovir or entecavir.

Hepatitis D, also known as “delta hepatitis,” only occurs in people who are also infected with the HBV.

Read Also: World Blood Donor Day 2023

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