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Classification Of Directive Principles of State Policy

Though the Indian Constitution has not originally classified DPSPs, on the basis of their content and direction, they are usually classified into.....

Though the Indian Constitution has not originally classified DPSPs, on the basis of their content and direction, they are usually classified into three types- Gandhian, Socialistic, and Liberal-Intellectual Principles.

  • Background: The source of the concept of Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) is the Spanish Constitution from which it came in the Irish Constitution.
  • The concept of DPSP emerged from Article 45 of the Irish Constitution. Constitutional Provisions: Part IV of the Constitution of India (Article 36–51)  contains the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP).
  • Article 37 of the Indian Constitution States about the application of the Directive Principles.
  • These principles aim at ensuring socio -economic justice to the people and establishing India as a Welfare State.
  • Classification of Principles: The Directive Principles are classified on the basis of their ideological source and objectives. These are Directives based on:
    • Socialist Principles
    • Gandhian Principles
    • Liberal and Intellectual Principles

Socialist Principles

Principal among this category of directives are:

  •  securing welfare of the people (Art. 38)
  • securing proper distribution of material resources of the community as to best sub serve the common-good, equal pay for equal work, protection of childhood and youth against exploitation. etc. (Art.39),
  • Equal justice and free legal aid (Art. 39A, added by 42nd Amendment
  • securing right to work, education etc. Art. (41)
  • securing just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief (Art. 42) etc.
  • Participation of workers in management of industries (Art 43A, added by 42nd Amendment)
  • Promotion of Co-operative societies (Art 43B, added by 97th Amendment)

Gandhian Principles

Principal among such directives are:

  • to organize village panchayats (Art. 40),
  • to secure living wage, decent standard of life, and to promote cottage industries (Art.43),
  • to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to 14 years of age (Art. 45),
  • to promote economic and educational interests of the weaker sections of the people, particularly, the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes,
  • to enforce prohibition of intoxicating drinks and cowslaughter and to organize agriculture and animal husbandry on scientific lines (Arts. 46-48).

Liberal-Intellectual Principles

Principal among such directives are

  • to secure uniform civil code throughout the country (Art.44),
  • Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife (Art48A, added by 42nd Amendment)
  • to separate the judiciary from the executive (Art.50),
  • to protect monuments of historic and national importance, and
  • to promote international peace and security.

About Uniform Civil Code:

  • Dr B R Ambedkar was strongly in favour of Uniform Civil Code.
  • In S R Bommai vs Union of India case in 1994 the Supreme Court urged the government to enact a Uniform Civil Code to promote National Integration.
  • The Supreme Court (1994) stated that the Article 44 had remained a dead letter.
  • The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and the DPSP are the integral parts of the Indian Constitution. All the three are meant for building an egalitarian (equal) society and in the concept of socio-economic justice.
  • If The Fundamental Rights represent the don’ts, the DPSP represents the Do’s of the executive and legislature then there is conflict.

Classification Of Directive Principles of State Policy, Classification Of Directive Principles of State Policy

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