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Classification of Biomes on The Earth

Biomes can be defined as a collection of plants and animal species interacting within specific certain climatic conditions.....Classification of Biomes on The Earth

Biomes can be defined as a collection of plants and animal species interacting within specific certain climatic conditions such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, and soil conditions. The division of the biosphere into 5 major biomes is possible.

  • Forest biome
  • Grasslands biome
  • Desert biome
  • Tundra biome
  • Aquatic  Biome
  • Altitudinal Biome
On the basis of climate with special emphasis on availability of moisture
  • The determination of biomes is based on the degree of moisture availability to plants, ranging from abundant (forest biome) to almost scarce (desert biome), according to this basis.
  • But within each biome, conditions of temperature are vastly different from low to high altitudes and low to high latitudes.
  • Consequently there is a need to sub-divide each biome in to further sub-types.
  • However, according to this classification, there are four major types of biomes:
    • Forest biome
    • Savanna biome
    • Grassland biome
    • Desert biome
On the basis of climate and vegetation
  • This classification argues that there is a close relationship between the world distributional patterns of plants and animal species and the climatic types of the world.
  • Thus, based on this relationship the world has been divided into different biome types.
  • The vegetation is the most dominant component of the biomes.
  • There is an intimate relationship between vegetation and climate, which leads to the division of the world into various types based on climates.
List of Major Biomes of the World
Name of the BiomeDistribution & Abiotic ComponentsBiotic Components
TundraThe world’s northern and southernmost regions are adjacent to the ice-bound poles.The biotic components comprise lichen, mosses, and sedges in the tundra biome, which is devoid of trees in the southern section.Reindeer, arctic fox, polar bear, snowy owl, lemming, arctic hare, and ptarmigan are common consumers found here.Amphibians and reptiles are essentially non-existent.
TaigaNorthern Europe, Asia, and North America.The temperature is more moderate than the tundra.They are also referred to \as boreal forests.Coniferous evergreens, predominantly spruce, some pine, and firs are the autotrophs which dominate the landscape.Birds, hawks, fur-bearing carnivores, small mink, elks, puma, Siberian tiger, wolverine, and wolves are among the heterotrophs.
Temperate Deciduous ForestThis biome extends over Central and Southern Europe, Eastern North America, Western China, Japan, New Zealand etc.Moderate average temperature and abundant rainfall is prevalent here.These are the world’s most productive agricultural regions in general.Beech, oak, maple, and cherry trees are among the producers.The most common animals are vertebrates and invertebrates.
Tropical RainforestThe equatorial regions’ tropical areas are teeming with life.Temperatures are high, and there is a lot of rain.Tropical rainforests encompass roughly 7% of the earth’s surface and account for 40% of global producers and consumers.There are numerous species of broad-leaved evergreen trees with multiple storeys.The canopy or tree top zones are home to the majority of consumers and epiphytic plants.
SavannahIn Africa, the Savannah is most extensive.Grasses with scattered trees and prickly plants that can withstand fire.Antelopes, buffaloes, zebras, elephants, and rhinoceros are among the grazers and browsers.Carnivores include lion, cheetah, and hyena; and mongoose, as well as many rodents.
GrasslandSpread across North America, Ukraine, etc.Temperate conditions with low rainfall is a distinguishing feature.The vegetation is dominated by the producers, notably grasses.Large herbivores such as bison, antelope, cattle, rodents, prairie dogs, wolves, and a broad array of ground-nesting birds are among the consumers.
DesertLow humidity and infrequent rainfall in the interiors of the continent.The days are hot, but the nights are chill.The producers include drought-resistant varieties such as cactus, euphorbias and sagebrush.The consumers found here include reptiles, small mammals and birds.
Aquatic Zones
  • Biomes do not describe aquatic ecosystems.
  • They are, however, separated into distinct life zones, with distinct plant and animal life zones.
  • Salinity, dissolved nutrient levels, water temperature, and sunlight penetration depth are the main distinctions across the various aquatic zones.
Frequently Asked Questions related to the Classification of biomes :
Ques 1. How are biomes classified based on temperature and precipitation?

Ans. Biomes can be classified based on temperature and precipitation patterns. The Köppen climate classification system, commonly used, categorizes biomes into groups such as tropical rainforests, deserts, temperate forests, grasslands, and tundra, among others. The average temperature and precipitation levels in a particular region determine these classifications.

Ques 2. What are the main factors that determine the boundaries of different biomes?

Ans. Temperature and precipitation patterns primarily determine the boundaries of different biomes. Other factors such as elevation, latitude, soil type, and topography also play a role in shaping biome boundaries. For example, mountain ranges can create a rain shadow effect, leading to the formation of different biomes on the windward and leeward sides.

Ques 3. Are there transitional areas between biomes?

Ans. Yes, transitional areas known as ecotones exist between different biomes. Ecotones are zones where two or more biomes overlap and blend together. These areas often exhibit a mix of characteristics from the adjacent biomes, supporting a diverse range of plant and animal species. Ecotones are important for biodiversity and can serve as critical habitats and migration corridors for various organisms.

Classification of Biomes on The Earth,Classification of Biomes on The Earth,Classification of Biomes on The Earth

Read Also : Classification of Soils on Earth

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