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Biomes of the World

A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups which are adapted to that particular environment....

A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups which are adapted to that particular environment.

  • Most terrestrial biomes are defined by the dominant plant life. The plant life is determined in part by the climate in a region, and climate is controlled by many factors, including latitude and geography.
  • The distribution of biomes is determined by environmental conditions, which must be appropriate to support the dominant species. Moisture and temperature are usually the most important environmental influences on the distribution of terrestrial biomes
  • Frederick Clements‘ opening talk at the first meeting of the Ecological Society of America in 1916 gave birth to the word biome.
  • Biome is the largest geographic biological unit, containing a variety of communities termed after the region’s major features, such as grasslands, deserts, or forests.

Biomes Factors Affecting

  1. Temperature and Precipitation : Tmperature and precipitation variations affect various aspects of biomes, such as plants. Biomes with low precipitation and extreme temperatures have short growing seasons and poor soil.
  2. Latitude : The temperature will vary depending on which angle receives sunlight.
    • For example, biomes in high latitudes farthest from the Equator, such as taiga and tundra, receive the least sunlight and have lower temperatures. However, biomes in the middle latitudes between the poles and the Equator, such as temperate deciduous forests, receive more sunlight and have moderate temperatures.
  3. Elevation: refers to the height of land above sea level, and it has a significant impact on biomes. The change occurs as the atmosphere thins at higher elevations, retaining less heat.

 Major biomes of the world:

  • Forest biome
  • Grasslands biome
  • Desert biome
  • Tundra biome
  • Aquatic  Biome
  • Altitudinal Biome
Forest biome
  • Tropical Evergreen Forest
  • Monsoon Deciduous Forests
  • Savanna Biome
  • Desert Biome
  • Mediterranean Biome
Grasslands biome

Tropical Grassland:
These grasslands are found on either side of the equator and extend to the tropics.
These grasslands get moderate to low amounts of rainfall.
Grasses can grow as tall as 3 to 4 meters high.
The following are the examples:

  • Savanna in East Africa
  • Campos in Brazil
  • Liana in Venezuela

Temperate Grasslands:
It is found in mid-latitudinal zones and interior parts of continents.
Grasses are short and nutrients
Animals are wild buffalo and Bison
The following are the examples:

  • Pampas: Argentina
  • Prairie: North America
  • Veld: South Africa
  • Steppe: Central Africa
  • Down: Australia
Desert Biome: 
  • Cold desert
  • Hot Desert :
    • Sahara Desert
    • Kalahari Desert
    • Atacama
Aquatic Biomes:

It can be freshwater or marine aquatic biome.

Altitudinal Biome:

These are found on slopes of high mountain ranges like the Himalayas, Andes, and Rockies. Vegetation and climate vary according to altitude.

Biomes of the World

Also Read: Aquatic Ecosystem

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