They are the largest of the Earth’s aquatic ecosystems. They are defined as bodies of water with a salt concentration equal to or greater than that of seawater. Marine waters occupy more than 70% of the Earths surface, providing more than 97 percent of the planet’s water supply and 90 percent of habitable space.
- The marine ecosystem is the interaction between living (plants and animals) and non-living (inanimate) organisms within the marine culture.
- Each living organism in the marine ecosystem is dependent on the others, forming a marine culture food chain.
- The ecosystem’s biotic and abiotic components all play a part in maintaining optimal equilibrium.
- Marine ecosystems differ from freshwater ecosystems, which contain less salt.
- One of the most significant features of an ecosystem is temperature. Marine water has an average temperature of 30 degrees Fahrenheit.
- The marine ecosystems around the equator have relatively warm water temperatures, whereas those towards the poles have frigid water temperatures.
- The temperature of the marine ecosystem is critical to the survival of living species in the marine environment.
- As marine ecosystems can indeed be found in many different places on the planet, marine climates can range from tropical to polar.
- Monsoon, subtropical, temperate, and subpolar climates can also be found in marine habitats.
- Phytoplankton is the starting point of many marine food chains. Phytoplankton is a microscopic marine algae that is no more than 20mm in diameter.
- These microalgae grow in locations with enough light to sustain photosynthesis, such as the upper reaches of the ocean’s surface.
- Photosynthesis allows phytoplankton to generate their own energy.
- The energy then goes toward the primary consumers who consume them, such as a school of little fish.
- When those fish are eaten by larger fish, the energy is passed on again, and then again when that fish is eaten by the still larger organisms such as sharks.
- The shark is the top tertiary consumer in this food web.
- Only when the shark dies and its body is eaten by detritivores does the energy in the shark cycle back into the ecosystem.
- Marine ecosystems provide social, economic, and biological ecosystem services to humans in addition to countless advantages to the natural world.
- Marine systems help to manage global climate, contribute to the water cycle, sustain biodiversity, supply food and energy, and give recreational and tourism opportunities.
- Capture fisheries, aquaculture, offshore oil and gas, trade, and shipping are all supported by marine systems economically.
Aquatic Ecosystem- Threats
- Overfishing, habitat loss, the introduction of Foreign species, ocean pollution, ocean acidification, and ocean warming are all examples of anthropogenic threats in these environments.
- These have an impact on marine ecosystems and food webs, and may have unintended repercussions for biodiversity and the survival of marine life forms.
- Many marine species across various groups have experienced alterations in geographical range and seasonal activities in response to ocean warming, sea ice melting, and biogeochemical changes, such as oxygen loss, to their habitats.
- Only about 13% of the ocean area is still considered wilderness, largely in open ocean areas rather than along the shore.
The Area of Marsh, Fen, Peatland, Whether Natural Artificial Permanent Temporary with Including areas of Marine Water the Depth. Water that is Static Flowing, Fresh, Brackish Salt,
Function of Wetlands:
- Habitat to Aquatic A Flora and Fauna as Well as Numerous Species of Birds, including Migratory Species.
- Nutrients Recycling
- Water Purification
- Floods Mitigation
- Maintenance of Stream Flow
- Ground Water Recharging
- Provide Drinking Water.
- Covered by Waterlogged soil for At least Seven Days During the Growing Season.
- Adopt Plant Life.
- Hydrilic Soils.
- Stabilization of Local Climate.
- Source of Live Hood for Local People.
Reasons for Depletion:
- Conversion for Lands for Agriculture.
- Removal of Sands from beds.
- Aqua Culture.
- Domestic Waste.
- Climate Change.
- Survey and Demarcation.
- Artificial Regeneration.
- Protective Measures.
- Weed Control
- Wildlife Conversation
- Environmental Awareness
They are Located where the River meets the Sea. They are the Water Bodies where the Flow of the Fresh Water from River Mixes with the Salt Water Transported, by tide, from the Oceans.
- An Estuary is a Semi Enclosed with a Coastal Body of Water with one or More Rivers or Streams Flowing into it.
- It has Free Connection with an Open Sea
- The Complete Salinity Range from 0-35 PPT is seen from the Head to the Mouth of an Estuary.
- Estuaries ae Typically Classifies by their Geomorphological Features or by Water Circulation Patterns and Can Be Referred by Many Different Names Such as Bays, Harbors, Lagoons, inlets, Etc.
- Estuaries are Productive Zones usually Biologically Highly
Also Read : Biodiversity