State PCS

Edit Template
Edit Template

Child Trafficking in India

Context: A new report by International Organization for Migration (IOM) and Harvard University reveals that over half of child...Child Trafficking in India

Context: A new report by International Organization for Migration (IOM) and Harvard University reveals that over half of child trafficking victims worldwide are trafficked within their own country.

Why in news?

  • Child trafficking manifests in the form of domestic labour, forced child labour across industries, and illegal activities such as begging, organ trade and commercial sex purposes.
  • Estimates show that children account for one in every three detected victims of trafficking worldwide; this rises to one in two in low-income countries.
What is Child Trafficking?

Child trafficking refers to the illegal recruitment, transportation, and exploitation of children for various purposes, such as forced labour, sexual exploitation, and child marriage.

  • It is a grave violation of human rights and poses a significant threat to the well-being and development of children.
Child trafficking in India: Data
  • According to data from the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), traffickers trafficked eight children every day in India in 2021 for purposes of labor, begging, and sexual exploitation.
    • These numbers stood at 2,834 cases in 2018; 2,914 in 2019; 2,222 in 2020.
  • This data only includes confirmed cases of trafficking, which does not account for missing children.
    • Cases often go unreported due to a lack of awareness about the modalities of trafficking, reluctance to seek police help and socio-economic deprivation.
    • One child goes missing every eight minutes in India — with millions ending up in domestic slavery, sex work and forced labour.

What are the Reasons behind child trafficking?

  • Sex trade industry and domestic labour
    • Minor girls in the age bracket 15-18 years are more vulnerable to trafficking due to these reasons.
  • Economic factors
    • Poverty, hunger, and lack of work are the main reasons for this.
  • Social factors
    • The caste and community-based discrimination and unfair treatment in rural areas are also at the root of this problem.
  • Other factors
    • Externalities such as the COVID-19 pandemic, armed conflict, and climate change further increases vulnerability for children.

Challenges in preventing child trafficking

  1. Prevailing challenges include a lack of coordination among AHTUs and disjointed operations by State and Central Governments.
  2. There is no comprehensive programme for tackling trafficking, an absent witness protection framework (the victim is also the witness).
  3. There are challenges in accessing compensation.
    • Some States had not created the fund to compensate victims.
    • A lack of awareness about compensation and opaque documentation requirements bog down survivors.
What are the Constitutional & legislative provisions related to Trafficking in India?
  • Trafficking in Human Beings or Persons is prohibited under the Constitution of India under Article 23 (1).
  • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 : legislation for prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
  • Criminal Law (amendment) Act 2013 : The Indian Penal Code has been amended to include Section 370 and 370A, which provide comprehensive measures to counter human trafficking, including the trafficking of children for exploitation in any form.
  • Protection of Children from Sexual offences (POCSO) Act, 2012 : which has come into effect from 14th November, 2012 is a special law to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation with precise definition of abuse.
  • Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 : To prohibit the engagement of children in certain employments and to regulate the conditions of work of children in certain other employments.
  • Sections 372 and 373 : Dealing with selling and buying of girls for the purpose of prostitution.
  • Anti Trafficking Cell (ATC) : The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) set up the Anti-Trafficking Nodal Cell (CS Division) in 2006.
International Initiatives
  • The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 1989.
  • Palermo Protocol of 2000: India signed this Protocol in 2002, but it was ratified in 2011. This Protocol, for the first time, provides a clear definition of trafficking, which helps in combating trafficking.
  • The United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN GIFT) was conceived to promote the global fight against human trafficking, based on international agreements reached at the UN.

Way forward

  • Alarming prevalence of trafficking crimes despite existing laws and initiatives.
  • Community-based interaction and awareness needed to address the issue.
  • Steps like community-based rehabilitation and revisiting laws to close loopholes.
  • Addressing poverty-driven child labor through creating more work opportunities for families.
  • Enhancing technical aid and collaboration to protect victims and prosecute perpetrators.
  • Improving capabilities of police and NGOs to combat human trafficking.
  • Ensuring proper data exchange domestically and internationally for effective response.
FAQs related With Child trafficking in India
Ques 1: What is child trafficking in India?

Answer: Child trafficking in India refers to the illegal and exploitative trade of children for various purposes, including forced labor, sexual exploitation, child marriage, adoption fraud, and involvement in organized begging or criminal activities.

Ques 2: What are the causes and risk factors of child trafficking in India?

Answer: Various factors drive child trafficking in India, including poverty, lack of education, social inequality, migration, armed conflict, natural disasters, and weak law enforcement. Due to their vulnerability, children from marginalized communities face a higher risk of being trafficked.

Ques 3: What measures are taken to prevent and combat child trafficking in India?

Answer: The Government of India has enacted laws, conducted awareness campaigns, and collaborated with NGOs and international organizations to combat child trafficking.

Read Also : What Is Parkinson’s Disease?

Demo Class/Enquiries

blog form

More Links
What's New
IAS NEXT is a topmost Coaching Institute offering guidance for Civil & Judicial services like UPSC, State PCS, PCS-J exams since more than 10 years.
Contact Us
Social Icon

Copyright ©  C S NEXT EDUCATION. All Rights Reserved