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Application Of Biotechnology in Environment

Application Of Biotechnology in Environment

Biotechnology in Environment: Environmental Biotechnology involves utilizing biological systems, including cells, enzymes, and cell compartments, to address environmental challenges and enhance ecosystem health. This field encompasses the study and application of these biological tools for remediating polluted environments such as land, water, air, and sediments. Additionally, Environmental Biotechnology focuses on developing eco-friendly processes like green manufacturing technologies to promote sustainability. This definition, as stated by the International Society for Environment Biotechnology (ISEB), underscores the multifaceted approach of Environmental Biotechnology in tackling environmental issues.

Bioenergy – Biotechnology in Environment

  • Bioenergy sources include biogas, biomass, fills, and hydrogen.
  • Environmental Biotechnology finds applications in domestic, industrial, and space programs.
  • Clean energy is imperative considering the current state of the nation, offering an alternative to exhaustible energy sources.
  • Processing waste collected from organic and biomass sources generates clean energy, exemplifying green energy initiatives.
  • Countries increasingly favor biomass energy due to its lesser environmental impact.

Bioremediation – Biotechnology in Environment

  • Bioremediation, a branch of biotechnology, employs living organisms like microorganisms and fungi to remove foreign substances, contaminants, and toxins from various environments such as soil and water.
  • It addresses environmental issues by utilizing bacteria and fungi to clean pollutants from the environment.
  • Vital microbes, including bacteria, decompose complex dead organisms into useful organic matter and nutrients. However, certain contaminants like Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) cannot be degraded by microorganisms.
  • Bioremediation can occur aerobically and anaerobically. In aerobic conditions, oxygen is required to break down contaminants and toxins, yielding water and carbon. In anaerobic conditions, microbes decompose contaminants using chemical compounds present in the soil.
  • It is used to clean up oil spills and contaminated groundwater. For example, the Oil Zapper, developed by TERI, utilizes hydrocarbon compounds found in crude oil and oily sludge to convert them into harmless CO2 and water.

Following are the types of bioremediations:

  1. Biotransformation: Refers to the conversion of complex compounds, mainly drugs and xenobiotics, into non-toxic forms through biological processes, often utilized in pharmacology.
  2. Phytoremediation: Involves the use of green plants and microorganisms to reduce contamination in various environmental substrates such as soils, sludges, sediments, and water bodies, aiming to restore ecological balance.
  3. Microbial Remediation: Utilizes microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants, with processes occurring either aerobically or anaerobically, contributing to the detoxification of polluted environments.
  4. Molecular Ecology: Applies methods such as population genetics and phylogenetics to study evolutionary relationships within ecosystems. DNA fingerprinting aids in understanding nature’s intricacies and assessing population diversity, notably in wild animals like cheetahs and polar bears.
  5. Mycoremediation: Involves the use of fungi, particularly fungal mycelia, to decontaminate environments by breaking down organic substances into simpler forms. Fungal mycelia secrete enzymes and acids that facilitate the decomposition of lignin and cellulose, contributing to ecosystem remediation.


  • Biotransformation is the process in which complex compounds in the environment undergo biological changes, transitioning from simple, non-toxic forms to toxic forms.
  • In the Manufacturing sector, this process is utilized to convert poisonous substances into by-products.


  • Biomarker application in environmental biotechnology involves measuring chemical levels to identify environmental damage.
  • It serves as a crucial tool for establishing connections between pollutants like oils and their origins.


  • Preserving a safe and clean environment for future generations is paramount.
  • Observing how creatures and ecosystems adapt to environmental changes is invaluable for maintaining cleanliness and sustainability.
  • Utilizing ecological biotechnology helps prevent harmful toxins and waste from contaminating our surroundings.
  • Societal progress should prioritize environmental protection and sustainability.
  • Environmental biotechnology plays a crucial role in purifying pollutants from the environment.
  • Scientists and environmentalists increasingly leverage biotechnology to transform waste into reusable resources, enhancing sustainability.


The utilization of biotechnology in environmental contexts yields vast benefits, addressing and mitigating a myriad of environmental challenges. Institutions such as the International Society for Environmental Biotechnology (ISEB) spearhead research endeavors focused on harnessing microorganisms to remediate ecosystems and pioneer sustainable energy sources. Their overarching objective revolves around safeguarding natural ecosystems, encompassing land, water, air, soil, and sediments. Given the escalating pressures from industrialization, urbanization, and human activities, environmental degradation including resource depletion and pollution looms large. Biotechnological applications offer promising avenues for tackling these issues in a manner that is both effective and environmentally

Read also: Science Technology

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