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World Water Week and Jal Jeevan Mission

World Water Day is an annual observance day held on March 22 that emphasizes,World Water Week and Jal Jeevan Mission..

Why in news?

  • World Water Day is an annual observance day held on March 22 that emphasizes the significance of clean water.
  • The Jal Jeevan Mission aims to deliver safe and enough drinking water to all rural Indian households by 2024 through individual household tap connections.
    • The initiative will also make source sustainability measures essential, such as grey water management, water conservation, and rainwater collection.

About Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

  • It is the Ministry of Jal Shakti’s main programme, with the goal of connecting every rural family to tap water by 2024.
  • The Prime Minister made the announcement in 2019.
  • It will take a community-based approach to water, with comprehensive information, education, and communication as a fundamental component of the goal.
  • Source sustainability measures, such as recharge and reuse through greywater management, water conservation, and rainfall collecting, will be obligatory parts of the programme.

Works Under Jal Jeevan Mission

Nuapada District in Odisha switched to surface from ground sources
  • Over-extraction of groundwater in western Odisha has resulted in increased concentrations of natural fluoride in groundwater. Nuapada district in western Odisha is also impacted.
  • Nuapada shifted from ground to surface sources to address its quality and quantity issues.
  • Following the commencement of the Jal Jeevan Mission in 2019, the district experienced a significant transformation in the rural water delivery sector. Under the mission, river water was tapped for drinking purposes.
Dharwad revived traditional ponds to replenish groundwater
  • Groundwater is the primary source of drinking water in the villages of Karnataka’s Dharwad district. Due to overexploitation, its levels are rapidly dropping to catastrophic levels.
  • Karnataka has 34 talukas, and issues such as population pressure, wastewater discharge, and the addition of agricultural chemicals into soil have all led to the state’s groundwater quality worsening and levels plummeting.
  • Groundwater sources are recharged and supplemented by revitalized ponds that serve as village-level groundwater-recharge structures under the Jal Jeevan Mission.

The communities of Junagadh blend ground and surface supplies

  • Junagadh is a district in Gujarat’s Saurashtra region. The climate in the area is semi-arid, with harsh temperatures, sporadic rainfall, and a high rate of evaporation.
  • Initially, the area was reliant on perennial streams that ran through the majority of its communities. Drinking water from streams exposed the community, particularly youngsters, to illnesses such as dysentery and jaundice.
  • Surface and groundwater are utilized in ways that maintain ecological equilibrium.
  • The Village Water and Sanitation Committee (VWSC), founded in 2019 as part of the Jal Jeevan Mission initiative, is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the village’s water delivery infrastructure.

How do Past Rural Water Supply Efforts and Challenges shape the Jal Jeevan Mission?

  • Historical Attempts and Shortcomings:
    • Initial Efforts (1950s-1960s): The priority of supplying basic water to rural areas was established during India’s first five-year plan (1951-56). However, focus was limited to easily accessible villages.
    • National Rural Drinking Water Supply Programme (1969): United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)’s technical support led to the digging of borewells and piped water connections, but coverage remained uneven.
    • Changing Approaches (1970s-1980s): Different initiatives like Accelerated Rural Water Supply Scheme (ARWS) and Minimum Needs Programme were introduced but faced challenges in implementation and coverage.
    • Evolution of Mission Approach (1986-1996): ARWS transformed into National Drinking Water Mission and later Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (1991).
      • Panchayati Raj Institutions were assigned responsibility for water supply.
    • According to a report released by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG), in most years between 2002 and 2007, stated that the existing schemes could cover only about 50% of the target habitations.
    • Initiated in 2017, the Har Ghar Jal program was introduced by the government to provide piped water supply to every household for safe drinking water.
      • However, by April 1, 2018, according to the Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation’s data, merely 20% of rural households were successfully linked to piped water.

United Nations Water Conference 2023

  • This World Water Day coincides with the commencement of the UN Water Conference 2023.
  • The meeting is a once-in-a-generation chance to bring the globe together to find answers to the water and sanitation crises.
  • National governments and stakeholders from all levels of society will collaborate to establish voluntary pledges to accelerate progress toward SDG 6 and other globally agreed-upon water-related goals and targets.
  • These voluntary pledges will create the Water Action Agenda, which will achieve quick, revolutionary change for the rest of this decade.
  • The United Nations World Water Development Report (WWDR) is UN-Water’s flagship report on water and sanitation challenges.
  • Its 2023 edition, Partnerships and Cooperation for Water, will be released on World Water Day and will provide policy recommendations for decision-makers by giving best practices and in-depth research.
  • UNESCO is publishing the study on behalf of UN-Water.


World Water Day is notable because it raises awareness about the worldwide water situation and underscores the significance of maintaining freshwater resources. It emphasizes the problems associated with water scarcity, water pollution, insufficient water supply, and a lack of sanitary facilities. By raising awareness of these issues, the day encourages individuals, communities, organizations, and governments to take the required steps to manage freshwater resources responsibly and address water-related challenges. It is critical to achieving water security, safeguarding ecosystems, fostering economic development, and enhancing people’s health and well-being around the world.

MCQs about World Water Week

Question 1: When is World Water Day observed annually?

a) April 22
b) June 5
c) March 22
d) December 1

Question 2: What is the primary goal of the Jal Jeevan Mission?

a) Providing electricity to rural households
b) Providing healthcare services to rural areas
c) Delivering safe and adequate drinking water to rural households
d) Promoting education in rural regions

Question 3: Which Indian state shifted from ground to surface water sources to address water quality and quantity issues?

a) Karnataka
b) Maharashtra
c) Odisha
d) Tamil Nadu

Question 4: What is the role of the Village Water and Sanitation Committee (VWSC) under the Jal Jeevan Mission?

a) Designing the water supply infrastructure
b) Responsible for the implementation of the mission
c) Managing the operation and maintenance of water delivery infrastructure
d) Conducting water quality tests

Question 5: What is the focus of the United Nations Water Conference 2023?

a) Promoting sustainable agriculture
b) Addressing climate change
c) Solving global water and sanitation challenges
d) Promoting renewable energy

Read also:- World Water Day 2023 observed today: History, significance, theme and more

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