Subtropical Broad-leaved Forests are generally found at heights ranging from 1000 to 2000 meters in the Eastern Himalayas which are located east of 88°E longitude. The biotic components (producer, consumers, and decomposers) especially the migrating birds such as demoiselle crane, bar-headed goose, and ruddy shelduck can be found in these forests.
- Mean annual rainfall is 75 cm to 125 cm.
- Average annual temperature is 18°-21°C.
- Humidity is 80 percent.
- Eastern Himalayas to the east of 88°E longitude at altitudes varying from 1000 to 2000 m.
- Forests of evergreen species.
- Commonly found species are evergreen oaks, chestnuts, ash, beech, sals and pines.
- Climbers and epiphytes [a plant that grows non-parasitically on a tree or other plant] are common.
- These forests are not so distinct in the southern parts of the country. They occur only in the Nilgiri and Palni hills at 1070-1525 metres above sea level.
- It is a “stunted rain-forest” and is not so luxuriant as the true tropical evergreen.
- The higher parts of the Western Ghats such as Mahabaleshwar, the summits of the Satpura and the Maikal Range, highlands of Bastar and Mt. Abu in the Aravali Range carry sub-types of these forests.
Important Species: In the eastern Himalayas, Oak, Chestnut, Ash, Birch, Pine are common species.
- Sal, or Shorea robusta, as well as Terminalia, Bauhinia, Schima, and Castanopsis species, are common in these forests.
- In the denser forests, climbers and epiphytes are common.
- The endemic golden langur has a narrow range and is only found north of the Brahmaputra River in the broadleaf forest.
- The Bengal tiger, Indian elephant, smooth-coated otter, clouded leopard, gaur, Sumatran serow, Irrawaddy squirrel, and particolored flying squirrel are among the ecoregion’s threatened mammals.
- Most of the forests have been cleared for cultivation, especially along the fertile river valleys, because the alluvial soils are fruitful.
- And certain hill forests have been left alone due to the difficulties of removing steep, erosion-prone slopes.
- However, fuelwood gathering, livestock grazing, and pasture fire have all contributed to the destruction of these woods.
Subtropical Broad-Leaved Forests
Also Read : Littoral and Swamp Forests