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Ports in India

The Indian government is an important supporter of the port industry’s development. It has created an automatic path to 100% FDI for port......

The Indian government is an important supporter of the port industry’s development. It has created an automatic path to 100% FDI for port and harbour construction and maintenance projects. It has also made it easier for firms who build, operate, and maintain ports, inland waterways, and inland ports to benefit from a 10-year tax relief.

  • Port infrastructure is critical to the success of any country.
  • The length of India’s coastline is roughly 7,500 kilometres.
  • In terms of volume and value, ports handle nearly 95% and 70%, respectively, of India’s exports.
  • Iron ore, coal, crude petroleum, and other vital items are imported via the sea route.
MumbaiNatural harbor & biggest port of India (Gateway of India)Handles approx. 1/5th of India’s foreign trade
Nava Seva     Jawalar Lal Port (Highly Mechanized Port), Mumbai
ChennaiOldest artificial harbor on east coast & 2nd largest port in terms of volume of traffic
Ennore1st corporate port (To release pressure on Chennai port)
Tuticorin (TN)On Eastern coast of India
KandlaTidal Port (To release pressure on Mumbai port, developed after partition of India), Gujarat
Ports in India
KochiA natural harbor
VishakhapatnamDeepest artificial harbor on east coast
KolkataRiverine Port (Handles goods coming from SE Asian countries Australia & New Zealand)
HaldiaDeveloped on river Hooghly to relieve pressure on Kolkata port
ParadipLocated on Orissa coast.
MormugaoIn Goa (5th in total traffic handled)
New MangaloreOn New Mangalore
  • Ennore – 1st corporate port (To release pressure on Chennai port)
  • Indian Ports – 95 % by volume & 70 % by value – India’s international trade
  • In monsoon, all western ports except Mumbai, Cochin & Kandila are closed (12 Major & 1 Minor Port)
  • Maritime transport is to be administered by both the Central and the State governments.
  • While the central government’s shipping ministry administers the major ports, the minor and intermediate ports are administered by the relevant state gov. of coastal states.
  • All major ports, except one Ennore Port are government administered. It is the first port in India which is a public company
What is Landlord Port?
  • In this model, the publicly governed port authority acts as a regulatory body and as a landlord, while private companies carry out port operations—mainly cargo-handling activities.
  • Here, the port authority maintains ownership of the port while the infrastructure is leased to private firms that provide and maintain their own superstructure and install their own equipment to handle cargo.
  • In return, the landlord port gets a share of the revenue from the private entity.
Service Port Model?
  • In service ports, the port authority does the administration and operation of port activities.
  • The port operation includes providing navigational services, warehouse facilities, cranes, and skilled employees/laborers. the construction of infrastructure, superstructure, and providing employees, becomes the responsibility of the port authority.
  • Even if the port authority act in the public interest full ownership of the port remains with the state or the government.

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