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Earth Observation Satellites

Earth Observation Satellites

Earth Observation Satellites: Earth Observation (EO) uses high-tech tools to monitor our planet’s land, seas, rivers, lakes, and atmosphere. Satellites take detailed images of Earth’s features. Experts then analyze these images to find valuable information for various fields and industries.

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About Earth Observation System

The Earth Observing System (EOS) uses satellites to watch Earth. It studies things like land, oceans, atmosphere, and life.

  • EOS observations will allow for evaluation of a variety of Earth system processes, including the following:
    • Hydrologic processes govern the interactions of land and ocean surfaces with the atmosphere via heat, mass, and momentum transport.
    • Biogeochemical processes that contribute to trace gas and aerosol formation, dissipation, and transport, as well as their global distributions.
    • Climatological processes that govern cloud formation and dissipation, as well as their interactions with solar radiation.
    • Ecological processes that are affected by and/or will be affected by global change, as well as their adaptation to such changes.
    • Geophysical processes that have shaped or continue to shape the Earth’s surface, such as tectonics, volcanism, and glacier and sea ice melting.
  • The EOS mission aims to deepen our understanding of Earth’s system by studying its components and how they interact.
  • EOS will provide systematic, continuous observations from low Earth orbit to quantify changes in the Earth system.

List of Earth Observation Satellites

SatelliteLaunch DateLaunch VehicleApplication
EOS-04Feb 14, 2022PSLV-C52/EOS-04 MissionEarth Observation
EOS-01Nov 07, 2020PSLV-C49/EOS-01Disaster Management System, Earth Observation
RISAT-2BR1Dec 11, 2019PSLV-C48/RISAT-2BR1Disaster Management System, Earth Observation
Cartosat-3Nov 27, 2019PSLV-C47 /Cartosat-3 MissionEarth Observation
RISAT-2BMay 22, 2019PSLV-C46 MissionDisaster Management System, Earth Observation
HysISNov 29, 2018PSLV-C43 /HysIS MissionEarth Observation
Cartosat-2Series SatelliteJan 12, 2018PSLV-C40/Cartosat-2 Series Satellite MissionEarth Observation
Cartosat-2 Series SatelliteJun 23, 2017PSLV-C38 /Cartosat-2Series SatelliteEarth Observation
Cartosat -2Series SatelliteFeb 15, 2017PSLV-C37 /Cartosat -2 Series SatelliteEarth Observation
RESOURCESAT-2ADec 07, 2016PSLV-C36 /RESOURCESAT-2AEarth Observation
SCATSAT-1Sep 26, 2016PSLV-C35 /SCATSAT-1Climate & Environment
INSAT-3DRSep 08, 2016GSLV-F05 /INSAT-3DRClimate & Environment, Disaster Management System
CARTOSAT-2 Series SatelliteJun 22, 2016PSLV-C34 /CARTOSAT-2Series SatelliteEarth Observation
INSAT-3DJul 26, 2013Ariane-5 VA-214Climate & Environment, Disaster Management System
SARALFeb 25, 2013PSLV-C20/SARALClimate & Environment, Earth Observation
RISAT-1Apr 26, 2012PSLV-C19/RISAT-1Earth Observation
Megha-TropiquesOct 12, 2011PSLV-C18/Megha-TropiquesClimate & Environment, Earth Observation
RESOURCESAT-2Apr 20, 2011PSLV-C16/RESOURCESAT-2Earth Observation n
CARTOSAT-2BJul 12, 2010PSLV-C15/CARTOSAT-2BEarth Observation
Oceansat-2Sep 23, 2009PSLV-C14 /OCEANSAT-2Climate & Environment, Earth Observation
RISAT-2Apr 20, 2009PSLV-C12 /RISAT-2Earth Observation
CARTOSAT – 2AApr 28, 2008PSLV-C9 /CARTOSAT – 2AEarth Observation
IMS-1Apr 28, 2008PSLV-C9 /CARTOSAT – 2AEarth Observation
CARTOSAT-2Jan 10, 2007PSLV-C7 /CARTOSAT-2 /SRE-1Earth Observation
CARTOSAT-1May 05, 2005PSLV-C6/CARTOSAT-1/HAMSATEarth Observation
IRS-P6 /RESOURCESAT-1Oct 17, 2003PSLV-C5 /RESOURCESAT-1Earth Observation
The TechnologyExperimentSatellite (TES)Oct 22, 2001PSLV-C3 / TESEarth Observation
Oceansat (IRS-P4)May 26, 1999PSLV-C2/IRS-P4Earth Observation
IRS-1DSep 29, 1997PSLV-C1/IRS-IDEarth Observation
IRS-P3Mar 21, 1996PSLV-D3 / IRS-P3Earth Observation
IRS-1CDec 28, 1995MolniyaEarth Observation
IRS-P2Oct 15, 1994PSLV-D2Earth Observation
IRS-1BAug 29, 1991VostokEarth Observation
IRS-1AMar 17, 1988VostokEarth Observation
Rohini Satellite RS-D2Apr 17, 1983SLV-3Earth Observation
Bhaskara-IINov 20, 1981C-1 IntercosmosEarth Observation, Experimental
Rohini Satellite RS-D1May 31, 1981SLV-3D1Earth Observation

Need for Earth Observation Satellites

  • To tackle China’s advantage in the Ladakh region, we need to counter their extensive Electronic Observation Systems (EOS). China’s troop movements in 2020 caught us off guard due to our limited EOS capabilities.
  • The Indian Ocean Region is seeing a rise in China’s influence, posing a threat. We must enhance surveillance there using advanced systems.
  • Drones have limitations, especially when flying over enemy territories as they can be shot down. Instead, we should rely on satellite imagery which can provide detailed views even in remote areas, aiding in timely action and tracking suspicious activities.
  • Strengthening our border management is crucial, especially along the Pakistan-Bangladesh border, to combat infiltration and smuggling which threaten our national security.
  • Assessing damage post-attack is vital for refining our strategies against enemy targets in the future, creating opportunities for better defense.

Read Also: Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

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