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Cholera disease-Pre Facts

Context: Due to the rising number of cholera cases in the area, cholera vaccine shortages are a serious concern for African countries......

Context: Due to the rising number of cholera cases in the area, cholera vaccine shortages are a serious concern for African countries.

  • In five African countries, there have been 27,300 new cases of cholera since the year 2023, with 687 deaths.
  • According to the WHO (World Health Organization), cholera epidemics may become more frequent as a result of climate change because the bacteria that cause the disease can grow faster in warmer water.

About cholera:

  • It is a bacteria-caused potentially fatal infectious disease and a menace to the public’s health.
  • Vibrio cholera infections of the gut result in cholera, an acute diarrheal sickness.
  • Although the illness is mostly mild or symptomless, it can occasionally be severe.

Symptoms of cholera:

  • Leg cramps, nausea, and excessive watery diarrhea.
  • Contracting cholera involves drinking contaminated water or consuming food exposed to the cholera bacterium.
  • In locations with improper treatment of sewage and drinking water, the disease can rapidly spread.
  • There are now three oral cholera vaccines (OCV) approved by the WHO: Dukoral, Shanchol, and Euvichol-Plus.
  • For complete protection, all three immunizations require two doses.

What is the Roadmap of GTFCC about?

  • With the goal of reducing cholera deaths by 90 per cent and eliminating the disease in at least 20 countries by 2030, the new Global Roadmap developed by the Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) is a renewed approach to tackle the epidemic.
  • It’s an endeavor to encourage affected countries to commit to an effective mechanism by providing technical expertise, financial resources, and operational structures through local and global partnerships.
  • The roadmap comprises three strategic initiatives such as 
    • Focus on containing cholera outbreaks.
    • Quick detection through surveillance and enhanced laboratory capabilities.
    • Immediate and effective response systems.
  • In addition, a multi-sectoral intervention will focus on “hotspots” (geographies with a high incidence of cholera) to implement control measures such as water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and oral cholera vaccines (OCVs).
  • The GTFCC will also facilitate efficient coordination between countries to provide necessary technical support and resource mobilization.

What are the Recommendations?

  • Continuous surveillance is necessary to monitor if any of the serotypes and serogroups are gaining antibiotic resistance over time and may become major outbreak lineages at any time.
  • To stay ahead of the curve and ensure the best public health outcomes, it’s important to regularly re-evaluate vaccines and treatments for their effectiveness against newly evolving variants.

Cholera disease-Pre Facts, Cholera disease-Pre Facts, Cholera disease-Pre Facts

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