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UPSC Study Material | Agriculture


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Major Crops Cropping Patterns in Various
Parts of the Country

Different Types of Irrigation & Irrigation
Systems Storage

  • Modes of Irrigation
  • Sources of Irrigation
  • Choosing an Irrigation System
  • Problems Associated with Irrigation
  • Progress of Irrigation Under Five Year Plans
  • Environmental Effects of Irrigation
  • Need for Systemic Irrigation Reforms
  • Need for a National Water Policy

Transport & Marketing of Agricultural
Produce & Issues & Related Constraints

  • Process of Agricultural Marketing – Marketing Channels, Functionaries, Costs, etc.
  • Role of FCI
  • Regulated Markets
  • Warehousing
  • Cooperative Marketing
  • Shortcomings of Current Agricultural Marketing Process
  • APMCs
  • National Agricultutral Market (NAM)
  • Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO)
  • Contract Farming
  • Futures Trading in Agricultural Commodities

E-Technology in the Aid of Farmers,
Technology Missions

  • Government Initiatives To Aid Farmers
  • Constrains In E-Technology Implementation


Farm Subsidies & Minimum
Support Prices

  • Challenges And Problems Associated With Subsidies
  • Recent Developments Associated With Subsidies
  • WTO And Subsidies
  • Minimum Support Prices
  • Rationale Of MSP
  • Extent And Effectiveness Of MSP
  • Challenges And Problems Associated With MSP
  • Recent Developments Associated With MSP
  • Agricultural Pricing Policy
  • Rationale for Subsidies
  • Types of Subsidies
  • Effectiveness, Extent & Problems of Subsidies
  • Clash with WTO Agreements

Public Distribution System

  • Objectives/Significance
  • Functioning – Fair Price Shops, FCI, Ration Cards, Aadhaar Linking, etc.
  • Shortcomings or Problems Associated with PDS
  • Need to Improve the Working of PDS
  • Measures to Improve the Loopholes & Lacunas Associated with PDS
  • Steps Taken by Government in this Regard

Issues of Buffer Stocks & Food Security

  • Buffer Stock – Objectives & Norms in India
  • Impact of Government Procurement & Distribution
  • Need for Food Security
  • NFSM And other Food Security Related Government Initiatives

Economics of Animal-Rearing

  • Animal Husbandry In India
  • Dairy Industry In India
  • Poultry Farming
  • Meat Industry In India
  • Fishing Industry In India
  • Government Schemes And Interventions To Promote Animal Rearing In India

Food Processing & Related
Industries in India

  • Scope & Potential in India
  • Significance
  • Location
  • Constraints and Challenges
  • Upstream & Downstream Requirements
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Government Policies and Initiatives – SAMPADA, 12th FYP, etc.

Land Reforms in India

  • Objectives of land reforms
  • Need for land reforms
  • Land reforms undertaken
  • Impact of land reforms
  • Problems in implementation of land reforms
  • Success of land reforms
  • Government initiatives
Is agriculture an optional subject in the UPSC examination?

Answer: No, agriculture is not an optional subject in the UPSC examination. It is included as a part of the General Studies paper.

How can I improve my understanding of agricultural economics for the UPSC exam?

Answer: To improve your understanding of agricultural economics, refer to standard textbooks on the subject and study concepts like supply and demand, price determination, and agricultural marketing.

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