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UPSC Previous Year (Mains) Paper With Solution Subject Wise



1. Has digital illiteracy, particularly in rural areas, couple with lack of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) accessibility hindered socio-economic development? Examine with justification.

2. “Besides being moral imperative of a Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary precondition for sustainable development.” Analyze.

3. “ ‘Earn while you learn’ scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful”. Comment.

4. “Pressure groups play a vital role in influencing public policy making in India”. Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies.

5. Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty, and malnutrition be broken through microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples.

6. Can Civil Society and Non-Governmental Organizations present an alternative model of public service delivery to benefit the common citizen? Discuss the challenges of this alternative model.

7. “Though women in post-independent India have excelled in various fields, the social attitude towards women and feminist has been patriarchal.” Apart from women education and women empowerment schemes, what interventions can help change this milieu?

8. Discuss the desirability of greater representation of women in the higher judiciary to ensure diversity, equity, and inclusiveness.


1. Individual Parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss.

2. Indian Government has recently strengthened the anti-terrorism laws by amending the unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), 1967 and the NIA act. Analyze the changes in the context of the prevailing security environment while discussing the scope and reasons for opposing the UAPA by human rights organizations.

3. The Central Administration Tribunal which was established for redressal of grievances and complaints by or against central government employees, nowadays is exercising its powers as an independent judicial authority.

4. What are the methods used by the Farmers organizations to influence the policy- makers in India and how effective are these methods?


5. The Citizens’ Charter is an ideal instrument of organizational transparency and accountability, but it has its own limitations. Identify the limitations and suggest measures for greater effectiveness of the Citizens’ Charter.

6. E-governance is not only about utilization of the power of new technology, but also much about critical importance of the ‘use value’ of information. Explain.

7. “Policy Contradictions among various competing sectors and stakeholders have resulted in inadequate ‘protection and prevention of degradation’ to environment.” Comment with relevant illustrations.


8. “Poverty Alleviation programs in India remain mere showpieces until and unless they are backed up by political will.” Discuss with reference to the performance of the major poverty alleviation program in India.

9. Initially Civil Services in India were designed to achieve the goals of neutrality and effectiveness, which seems to be lacking in the present context. Do you agree with the view that drastic reforms are required in Civil Services. Comme

10. Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people.

11. Is the National Commission for Women able to strategise and tackle the problems that women face at both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer.

12. ‘The emergence of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in contemporary times points to the slow but steady withdrawal of the state from developmental activities’. Examine the role of the SHGs in developmental activities and the measures taken by the Government of India to promote the SHGs.


13. In the integrity index of Transparency International, India stands very low. Discuss briefly the legal, political, social and cultural factors that have caused the decline of public morality in India.

14. Has the Indian governmental system responded adequately to the demands of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization started in 1991? What can the government do to be responsive to this important change?

15. “Traditional bureaucratic structure and culture have hampered the process of socio-economic development in India.” Comment.

16. “In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors has been only marginal.” Critically examine this statement.

17. “Demographic Dividend in India will remain only theoretical unless our manpower becomes more educated, aware, skilled and creative.” What measures have been taken by the government to enhance the capacity of our population to be more productive and employable?

18. “Effectiveness of the government system at various levels and people’s participation in the governance system are interdependent” Discuss their relationship in the context of India.


19. In the light of Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in corporate governance to ensure transparency, accountability.

20. “If amendment bill to the Whistleblowers Protection Act, 2011 tabled in the Parliament is passed, there may be no one left to protect.” Critically evaluate.

21. “For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institutions remain independent and autonomous.” Discuss in the light of experiences in recent past.

22. Examine critically the recent changes in the rules governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976.

23. The Self Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programmes.Elucidate

24. How can the role of NGOs be strengthened in India for development works relating to protection of the environment? Discuss throwing light on the major constraints.


25. An athlete participates in Olympics for personal triumph and nation’s glory; victors are showered with cash incentives by various agencies, on their return. Discuss the merit of state sponsored talent hunt and its cultivation as against the rationale of a reward mechanism as encouragement.

26. Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria of selection of students. Discuss in light of the growing challenges

27. Has the Cadre based Civil Services Organization been the cause of slow change in India ? Critically examine

28. Two parallel run schemes of the Government, viz. the Adhaar Card and NPR, one as voluntary and the other as compulsory, have led to debates at national levels and also litigations. On merits, discuss whether or not both schemes need run concurrently. Analyse the potential of the schemes to achieve developmental benefits and equitable growth.

29. The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far is the efficacy of a government then inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss.

30. Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the Government is mulling over the proposal for incr>eased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons

31. The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators.

32. The penetration of Self Help Groups (SHGs) in rural areas in promoting participation in development programmes is facing socio-cultural hurdles. Examine.


33. Electronic cash transfer system for the welfare schemes is an ambitious project to minimize corruption, eliminate wastage and facilitate reforms. Comment.

34. The basis of providing urban amenities in rural areas (PURA) is rooted in establishing connectivity.Comment.

35. Though Citizens’ charters have been formulated by many public service delivery organizations, there is no corresponding improvement in the level of citizens’ satisfaction and quality of services being provided. Analyse.

36. ‘A national Lokpal, however strong it may be, cannot resolve the problems of immorality in public affairs.’ Discuss

37. Many State Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at State level? Discuss.

38. Discuss the recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission which have been a departure from the previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances.

39. The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify.

40. The legitimacy and accountability of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their patrons, the micro-finance outfits, need systematic assessment and scrutiny for the sustained success of the concept. Discuss.

41. The Central Government frequently complains on the poor performance of the State Governments in eradicating suffering of the vulnerable sections of the society. Restructuring of Centrally sponsored schemes across the sectors for ameliorating the cause of vulnerable sections of population aims at providing flexibility to the States in better implementation. Critically evaluate.



1. Explain the difference between computing methodology of Inda's Gross Domestic Product(GDP) before the year 2015 and after the year 2015.

2. Distinguish between Capital Budget and Revenue Budget. Explain the components of both these Budgets.

3. How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers ?

4. How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India's water crisis ?

5. Discuss how emerging technologies and globalisation contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels.

6. Do you agree that the Indian economy has recently experienced V-shaped recovery? Give reasons in support of your answer.

7. Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth”. Discussin the light of India's experience.

8. What are the salient features of the National Food Security Act, 2013 ? How as the Food Security Bill helped in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India?

9. What are the present challenges before crop diversification ? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification?


10. Explain intra-generational and inter-generational issues of equity from the perspective of inclusive growth and sustainable development.

11. Define potential GDP and explain its determinants. What are the factors that have been inhibiting India from realizing its potential GDP?

12. What are the main constraints in transport and marketing of agricultural produce in India?

13. What are the challenges and opportunities in food processing sector in the country? How can income of the farmers be substantially increased by encouraging food processing?

14. What are the salient features of the Jal Shakti Abhiyan launched by the Government of India for water conservation and water security?

15.Explain the meaning of investment in an economy in terms of capital formation. Discuss the factors to be considered while designing a concession agreement between a public entity and a private entity.

16. Explain the rationale behind the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to states) act of 2017. How has COVID-19 impacted the GST compensation fund and created new federal tensions?

17. What are the major factors responsible for making rice-wheat system a success? In spite of this success how has this system become bane in India?

18. Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to the conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our government for this purpose?


19. It is argued that the strategy of inclusive growth is intended to meet the objectives of inclusiveness and sustainability together. Comment on this statement

20. The public expenditure management is a challenge to the Government of India in context of budget making during the post liberalization period. Clarify it.

21. What are the reformative steps taken by the Government to make food grain distribution system more effective?

22. Elaborate the policy taken by the Government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector.

23. Enumerate the indirect taxes which have been subsumed in the goods and services tax (GST) in India. Also, comment on the revenue implications of the GST introduced in India since July 2017.

24. Do you agree with the view that steady GDP growth and low inflation have left the Indian economy in good shape? Give reasons in support of your arguments.


23. How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India?

24. “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).” Comment on the progress made in India in this regard.

25. How are principles followed by the NITI Aayog different from those followed by erstwhile Planning Commission in India?

26. Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long Term Capital Gains Tax (LTCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019.


27. Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports.

28. “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product (GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes in Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate?

29. What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyse and suggest measures for inclusive growth.

30. Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential?

31. Examine the development of Airports in India through joint ventures under Public – Private Partnership (PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard.

32. What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost-effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers?

33. One of the intended objectives of Union-Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyze the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective.


34. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poor section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.

35. Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MoUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India.

36. Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges.

37. Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).

38. How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country?

39. Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?

40. What are ‘Smart Cities’? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for ’Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission.


41. How can the ‘Digital India’ programme help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What steps has the Government taken in this regard?

42. “Success of ‘Make in India’ programme depends on the success of ‘Skill India’ programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments.

43. To what factors can the recent dramatic fall in equipment costs and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for the thermal power producers and the related industry?

44. There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognising this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs require augmentation. Discuss the issues plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.

45. The nature of economic growth in India in recent times is often described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer

46. In what way could replacement of price subsidy with Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss

47. What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in developing the food processing industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming these bottlenecks?

48. Craze for gold in Indians has led to a surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization Scheme.


49. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 has come into effect from 1st January, 2014. What are the key issues which would get addressed with the Act in place? What implications would it have on industrialization and agriculture in India?

50. National Urban Transport Policy emphasises on ‘moving people’ instead of ‘moving vehicles’. Discuss critically the success of the various strategies of the Government in this regard.

51. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the defence sector is now set to be liberalized. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?

52. Should the pursuit of carbon credits and clean development mechanisms set up under UNFCCC-be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of a carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth.

53. Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-à-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?

54. “While we flaunt India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability.” What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.

55. Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages short-sightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism for bringing inclusive growth in India? Discuss.

56. Explain how Private Public Partnership arrangements, in long gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsustainable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised?


57. (a) Discuss the impact of FDI entry into Multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy.

(b) Though India allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in what is called multi-brand retail through the joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI, even after a year, has not picked up. Discuss the reasons.

58. With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new Companies Bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the Bill and their implications.

59. What were the reasons for the introduction of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness.

60. Food Security Bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss variousapprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO

61. Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indians. Are they competing with theMNCs satisfactorily? Discuss.

62. Discuss the rationale for introducing Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. Bring out critically the reasons for the delay in roll out for its regime



1.How is S-400 air defence system technically superior to any other system presently available in the world ?

2. What are the research and developmental achievements in applied biotechnology? How will these achievements help to uplift the poorer sections of the society ?

3. The Nobel Prize in Physics of 2014 was jointly awarded to Akasaki, Amano and Nakamura for the invention of Blue LEDs in 1990s. How has this invents impacted the everyday life of human beings?


4. What do you understand by nanotechnology and how is it helping in health sector? (Answer in 150 words)

5. How is science interwoven deeply with our lives? What are the striking changes in agriculture triggered off by science-based technologies? (Answer in 150 words)

6. COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented devastation worldwide. However, technological advancements are being availed readily to win over the crises. Give an account of how technology was sought to aid management of the Pandemic. (Answer in 250 words)

7. Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to the conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our government for this purpose? (Answer in 250 words)


8. How can biotechnology help to improve the living standards of farmers?

9. What is India’s plan to have its own space station and how will it benefit our space programme?


10. With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy?

11. Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics.

12. Why is there so much activity in the field of biotechnology in our country? How has this activity benefitted the field of biopharma?


13. India has achieved remarkable successes in unmanned space missions including the Chandrayaan and Mars Orbiter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space mission. What are the main obstacles to launching a manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Examine critically.

14. Give an account of the growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is the advantage of fast breeder reactor programme in India?

15. Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat a wide variety of medical conditions including Leukaemia, Thalassemia, damaged cornea and several burns. Describe briefly what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments?


16. Why is nanotechnology one of the key technologies of the 21st century? Describe the salient features of Indian Government’s Mission on Nanoscience and Technology and the scope of its application in the development process of the country

17. Discuss India’s achievements in the field of Space Science and Technology. How the application of this technology has helped India in its socio-economic development?


18. What are the areas of prohibitive labour that can be sustainably managed by robots? Discuss the initiatives that can propel research in premier research institutes for substantive and gainful innovation

19. India’s Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL), which has a database containing formatted information on more than 2 million medicinal formulations is proving a powerful weapon in country’s fight against erroneous patents. Discuss the pros and cons of making this database publicly available under open-source licensing

20. What do you understand by ‘Standard Positioning System’ and ‘Precision Positioning System’ in the GPS era? Discuss the advantages India perceives from its ambitious IRNSS programme employing just seven satellites.


21. Can overuse and free availability of antibiotics without Doctor’s prescription, be contributors to the emergence of drug-resistant diseases in India? What are the available mechanisms for monitoring and control? Critically discuss the various issues involved.

21. Scientific research in Indian universities is declining, because a career in science is not as attractive as are business professions, engineering or administration, and the universities are becoming consumeroriented. Critically comment

22. In a globalized world, Intellectual Property Rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms—Copyrights, Patents and Trade Secrets


23. What do you understand by Umpire Decision Review System in Cricket? Discuss its various components. Explain how silicone tape on the edge of a bat may fool the system?

24. (a) What is a digital signature ? What does its authentication mean? Give various salient built-in features of a digital signature. (b) How does the 3D printing technology work? List out the advantages and disadvantages of the technology

25. Bringing out the circumstances in 2005 which forced amendment to the section 3(d) in Indian Patent Law, 1970, discuss how it has been utilized by the Supreme Court in its judgement in rejecting Novratis’ patent application for ‘Glivec’. Discuss briefly the pros and cons of the decision.

26. What do you understand by Fixed Dose Drug Combinations (FDCs)? Discuss their merits and demerits

27. (a) What is an FRP composite material ? How are they manufactured? Discuss their applications in aviation and automobile industries. (b) What do you understand by Run-of-river hydroelectricity project? How is it different from any other hydroelectricity project?



1. (a) Identify five ethical traits on which one can plot the performance of a civil servant. Justify their inclusion in the matrix.
(b) Identify ten essential values that are needed to be an effective public servant. Describe the /ways and means to prevent non-ethical behaviour in the public servants.

2. (a) Impact of digital technology as reliable source of input for rational decision making is debatable issue. Critically evaluate with suitable example.
(b) Besides domain knowledge, a public official needs innovativeness and creativity of a high order as well, while resolving ethical dilemmas. Discuss with suitable example.

3. What does each of the following quotations mean to you?
(a) “Every work has got to pass through hundreds of difficulties before succeeding. Those that persevere will see the light, sooner or later. —Swami Vivekananda (b) “We can never obtain peace in the outer world until and unless we obtain peace within ourselves.” – Dalai Lama
(c) Life doesn’t make any sense without interdependence. We need each other, and the sooner we learn that, it is better for us all.” -Erik Erikson word

4. (a) Attitude is an important component that goes as input in the elopement of human How to build a suitable needed for a public servant?
(b) In case of crisis of conscience does emotional intelligence help to overcome the same without compromising the ethical or moral stand that you are likely to follow? Critically examine.

5. (a) “Refugees should not be turned back to the country where they would face persecution or human right violation.” Examine the statement with reference to ethical dimension being violated by the nation claiming to be democratic with open society.
(b) Should impartial and being non-partisan be considered as indispensable qualities to make a successful civil servant? Discuss with illustrations.

6. (a) An independent and empowered social audit mechanism is an absolute must in every sphere of public service, including judiciary, to ensure performance, accountability and ethical conduct. Elaborate.
(b) “Integrity is a value that empowers the human being.” Justify with suitable illustration.


1. (a) Discuss the role of ethics and values in enhancing the following three major components of Comprehensive National Power (CNP) viz. human capital, soft power (culture and policies) and social harmony. (150 words) 10
(b) “Education is not an injunction, it is an effective and pervasive tool for all round development of an individual and social transformation”. Examine the New Education Policy, 2020 (NEP, 2020) in light of the above statement. (150 words)10

2. (a) 'Hatred is destructive of a person's wisdom and conscience that can poison a nation's spirit. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer. (150 words)
(b) What are the main components of emotional intelligence (EI) ? Can they be learned? Discuss.(150 words)

3. (a )What teachings of Buddha are most relevant today and why? Discuss. (150 words)
(b) 'The will to power exits, but it can be tamed and be guided by rationality and principles of moral duty.' Examine this statement in the context of international relations. (150 words)

4 (a) Distinguish between laws and rules. Discuss the role of ethics in formulating them. (150 words)
(b) A positive attitude is considered to be an essential characteristic of a civil servant who is often required to function under extreme stress. What contributes a positive attitude in person.? (150 words)

5. (a) What are the main factors responsible for gender inequality in India ? Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in this regard. (150 words)
(b) 'The current internet expansion has instilled a different set of cultural values which are often in conflict with traditional values.' Discuss. (150 words)

6 What do each of the following quotations mean to you?
(a) "Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand do so. If not fold your hands, bless your brothers and let them go their own way." – Swami Vivekanand (150 words)
(b)"The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in service of others ." Mahatma Gandhi(150 words)
(c) "A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” – Socrates. (150 words)


1. (a) What are the basic principles of public life? Illustrate any three of these with suitable examples.
(b) What do you understand by the term ‘public servant’? Reflect on the expected role of public servant.

2.(a) What is meant by the term ‘constitutional morality’? How does one uphold constitutional morality? (b) What is meant by ‘crisis of conscience’? How does it manifest itself in the public domain?

3.(a) Explain the basic principles of citizens charter movement and bring out its importance. (b) There is a view that the Official Secrets Act is an obstacle to the implementation of Right to Information Act. Do you agree with the view? Discuss.

4.(a) What do you understand by probity in governance? Based on your understanding of the term, suggest measures for ensuring probity in government. (b) “Emotional Intelligence is the ability to make your emotions work for you instead of against you”. Do you agree with this view? Discuss

What do each of the following quotations mean to you? 5.(a) “An unexamined life is not worth living”. – Socrates (b) “A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks he becomes.” – M.K. Gandhi (c) “Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

6.(a) Effective utilization of public funds is crucial to meet development goals. Critically examine the reasons for under-utilization and mis-utilization of public funds and their implications. (b) “Non-performance of duty by a public servant is a form of corruption”. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer.


7. (a) Suppose the Government of India is thinking of constructing a dam in a mountain valley bound by forests and inhabited by ethnic communities. What rational policy should it resort to in dealing with unforeseen contingencies? (b) Explain the process of resolving ethical dilemmas in Public Administration

8. What do each of the following quotations means to you in the present context? (a) “The true rule, in determining to embrace, or reject any thing, is not whether it has any evil in it; but whether it has more evil than good. There are few things wholly evil or wholly good. Almost every thing, especially of government policy, is an inseparable compound of the two; so that our best judgment of the preponderance between them is continually demanded.” – Abraham Lincoln. (b) “Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding.” – Mahatma Gandhi. (c) “Falsehood takes the place of truth when it results in unblemished common good.” – Tirukkural

9. (a) State the three basic values, universal in nature, in the context of civil services and bring out their importance. (b) Distinguish between “Code of ethics” and “Code of conduct” with suitable examples.

10. (a) What is meant by conflict of interest? Illustrate with examples, the difference between the actual and potential conflicts of interest. (b) “In looking for people to hire, you look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence and energy. And if they do not have the first, the other two will kill you.” —Warren Buffet What do you understand by this statement in the present-day scenario? Explain.

11. (a) “In doing a good thing, everything is permitted which is not prohibited expressly or by clear implication.” Examine the statement with suitable examples in the context of a public servant discharging his/her duties.(b) With regard to morality of actions, one view is that means are of paramount importance and the other view is that the ends justify the means. Which view do you think is more appropriate? Justify your answer.

12. (a) What is meant by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by civil servants in public interest? (b) “The Right to Information Act is not all about citizens’ empowerment alone, it essentially redefines the concept of accountability.” Discuss



13. (a) The crisis of ethical values in modern times is traced to a narrow perception of the good life.Discuss. (b) Increased national wealth did not result in equitable distribution of its benefits. It has created only some “enclaves of modernity and prosperity for a small minority at the cost of the majority.” Justify.

14. (a) Discipline generally implies following the order and subordination. However, it may be counterproductive for the organisation. Discuss. (b) Without commonly shared and widely entrenched moral values and obligations, neither the law, nor democratic government, nor even the market economy will function properly. What do you understand by this statement? Explain with illustration in the contemporary times.

15. Conflict of interest in the public sector arises when (a) official duties, (b) public interest, and (c) personal interest are taking priority one above the other. How can this conflict in administration be resolved? Describe with an example

16. Young people with ethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics. Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward.

17. (a) One of the tests of integrity is complete refusal to be compromised. Explain with reference to a real life example. (b) Corporate social responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable. Analyse.

18. (a) “Great ambition is the passion of a great character. Those endowed with it may perform very good or very bad acts. All depends on the principles which direct them.” – Napoleon Bonaparte. Stating examples mention the rulers (i) who have harmed society and country, (ii) who worked for the development of society and country. (b) “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Analyse.

19. (a) How will you apply emotional intelligence in administrative practices? (b) Strength, peace and security are considered to be the pillars of international relations. Elucidate.

20. Examine the relevance of the following in the context of civil service: (a) Transparency (b) Accountability (c) Fairness and Justice (d) Courage of Conviction (e) Spirit of service


21. Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously by the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and egalitarian society. (a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in today's educated Indians. (b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socioethical values considered necessary in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants?

22. Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.(a) Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours. (b) How can it be managed and controlled?

23. “Max Weber said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realize that the state bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality.” Critically analyse this statement.

24. (a) Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being. (b) Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundational values in public services, especially in the present day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with examples.

25. (a) What do you understand by the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’? (b) Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s Concept of seven sin.

26. (a) Analyse John Rawls’s concept of social justice in the Indian context. (b) Discuss the Public Services Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission


27. (a) “Corruption causes misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction in the path of national development.” Discuss Kautilya’s views. (b) How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan?

28. Law and Ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilized social existence. (a) Discuss how they achieve this objective. (b) Discuss how they achieve this objective.


29. (a) What is meant by ‘environmental ethics’? Why is it important to study? Discuss any one environmental issue from the viewpoint of environmental ethics. (b) Differentiate between the following: Law and Ethics Ethical management and Management of ethics Discrimination and Preferential treatment Personal ethics and Professional ethics

30. Given are two quotations of moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these, bring out what it means to you in the present context: (a) “The weak can never forgive; forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.” (b) “We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light

31. (a) “A mere compliance with law is not enough, the public servant also has to have a well-developed sensibility to ethical issues for effective discharge of duties.” Do you agree? Explain with the help of two examples, where (i) an act is ethically right, but not legally and (ii) an act is legally right, but not ethically. (b) How do the virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service? Explain with examples

32. (a) “Social values are more important than economic values.” Discuss the above statement with examples in the context of inclusive growth of a nation. (b) Some recent developments such as introduction of RTI Act, media and judicial activism, etc., are proving helpful in bringing about greater transparency and accountability in the functioning of the government. However, it is also being observed that at times the mechanisms are misused. Another negative effect is that the officers are now afraid to take prompt decisions. Analyze this situation in detail and suggest how this dichotomy can be resolved. Suggest how these negative impacts can be minimized

33. Two different kinds of attitudes exhibited by public servants towards their work have been identified as the bureaucratic attitude and the democratic attitude. (a) Distinguish between these two terms and write their merits and demerits, (b) Is it possible to balance the two to create a better administration for the faster development of our country?

34. Today we find that in spite of various measures like prescribing codes of conduct, setting up vigilence cells/commissions, RTI, active media and strengthening of legal mechanisms, corrupt practices are not coming under control. (a) Evaluate the effectiveness of these measures with justifications. (b) Suggest more effective strategies to tackle this menace.

35. At the international level, the bilateral relations between most nations are governed on the policy of promoting one’s own national interest without any regard for the interest of other nations. This leads to conflicts and tensions between the nations. How can ethical consideration help resolve such tensions? Discuss with specific examples.

36. Public servants are likely to confront with the issues of ‘Conflict of Interest’. What do you understand by the term ‘Conflict of Interest’ and how does it manifest in the decision making by public servants? If faced with the conflict of interest situation, how would you resolve it? Explain with the help of examples.

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