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POLITY

UPSC Previous Year Mains Paper with Solution | Subject Wise

Polity

2021

1. How have the recommendations of the 14th France Commission of India enabled the States to improve their fiscal position?

2. “Besides being a moral imperative of a Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary precondition for sustainable development.”

3. “‘Earn while you learn’ scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful”

4. Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analysing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures.

5. Has digital literacy, particularly in rural areas, coupled with lack of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) accessibility hindered socio-economic development? Examine with justification.

2020

1. "There is a need for simplification of procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of peoples Act” Comment

2. “Recent amendments to the Right to information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss

3. How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples to validate your answer

4. “Once a speaker, Always a speaker’! Do you think the practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India.

5. Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless stepney tyre’ to the most useful supporting organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas in which this transformation could be visible.

2019

1. On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification.

2. “Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution is a limited power and it cannot be enlarged into absolute power.” In the light of this statement explain whether Parliament under Article 368 of the Constitution can destroy the Basic Structure of the Constitution by expanding its amending power?

3. “The reservation of seats for women in the institutions of local self- government has had a limited impact on the patriarchal character of the Indian Political Process.” Comment.

4. “The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser and lawyer of the Government of India.” Discuss

5. Do you think that constitution of India does not accept principle of strict separation of powers rather it is based on the principle of ‘checks and balance’?

6. From the resolution of contentious issues regarding distribution of legislative powers by the courts,‘Principle of Federal Supremacy’ and ‘Harmonious Construction’ have emerged. Explain.

7. What can France learn from the Indian Constitution’s approach to secularism?

2018

8. How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India?

9. India and USA are the two large democracies. Examine the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based.

10. How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you know about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss.

11. Assess the importance of the Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing development projects?

12. Multiplicity of various commissions for the vulnerable sections of the society leads to problems of overlapping jurisdiction & duplication of functions. Is it better to merge all commissions into an umbrella human rights commission? Argue your case.

13. In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machine (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India?

14. Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine.

15. Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remain in force?

16. Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work? Discuss, in this context, the role of the Estimates Committee.

17. “The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise.

18. Whether the Supreme Court Judgment (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt.Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine.

2017

19. Explain the salient features of the constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016. Do you think it is efficacious enough ‘to remove cascading effect of taxes and provide for common national market for goods and services’?

20. Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy.

21. The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding a joint session of the two houses of the Parliament.Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof

22. To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful?

23. “The local self government system in India has not proved to be effective instrument of governance”.Critically examine the statement and give your views to improve the situation.

24. Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgement on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India

25. ‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss.

26. How do pressure groups influence Indian political process? Do you agree with this view that informal pressure groups have emerged as powerful as formal pressure groups in recent years?

2016

27. Exercise of CAG’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s policy implementation could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction

28. Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the ‘Preamble’. Are they defendable in the present circumstances?

29. What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution

30. Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss.

31. What is quasi judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples.

32. Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies, if any, that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and institution of Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian Federal Politics?

33. To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “Temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity.

34. “The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss.

2015

35. Khap panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra–constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human rights violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and the judiciary to set the things right in this regard.

36. Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of powers doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate ordinances, analyse whether the decisions of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate the ordinances be repealed?

37. What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 through the recent Ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss.

38. Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulation on burning crackers during Diwali? Discuss in the light of Article 21 of Indian Constitution and Judgement(s) of the Apex court in this regard

39. Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizen a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy.

40. The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasised in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and the extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings.

41. In absence of well–educated and organised local level government system, ‘Panchayats’ and ‘Samitis’ have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instruments of governance. Critically discuss.

2014

42. What do you understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss

43. Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time limit specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse.

44. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of theabove observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards.

45. Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy.

46. Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. Discuss.

47. The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue.Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed?

2013

50. The role of individual MPs (Members of Parliament) has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law which was legislated but with a different intention?

51. Discuss Section 66A of IT Act, with reference to its alleged violation of Article 19 of the Constitution

52. Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the ‘Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution

53. ‘The Supreme Court of India keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament in amending the Constitution.’ Discuss critically.

INTERNAL SECURITY

2021

1. Discuss how emerging technologies and globalisation contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels.

2. Keeping in view India's internal security, analyses the impact of cross-border cyber-attacks. Also discuss defensive measures against these sophisticated attacks. 1

3. Analyse the multidimensional challenges posed by external state and non-state actors, to the internal security of India. Also discuss measures required to be taken to combat these threats

4.Analyse the complexity and intensity of terrorism, its causes, linkages and obnoxious nexus. Also suggest measures required to be taken to eradicate the menace of terrorism. 15 (Answer in 250 words)

2020

6. Discuss different types of Cyber crimes and measures required to be taken to fight the menace. (Answer in 150 words)

7. What are the determinants of left-wing extremism in the Eastern part of India? What strategy should the Government of India, civil administration and security forces adopt to counter the threat in the affected areas? (Answer in 250 words)

8. Analyze internal security threats and transborder crimes along Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan borders including Line of Control (LoC). Also, discuss the role played by various security forces in this regard. (Answer in 250 words)

2019

9. Cross-Border movement of insurgents is only one of the several security challenges facing the policing of the border in North-East India. Examine the various challenges currently emanating across the IndiaMyanmar border. Also, discuss the steps to counter the challenges.

10. The banning of ‘Jammat-e-Islami’ in Jammu and Kashmir brought into focus the role of over-ground workers (OGWs) in assisting terrorist organizations. Examine the role played by OGWs in assisting terrorist organizations in insurgency affected areas. Discuss measures to neutralize the influence of OGWs.

11. What is the CyberDome Project? Explain how it can be useful in controlling internet crimes in India.

2018

12. Data security has assumed significant importance in the digitized world due to rising cyber crimes. The Justice B.N. Srikrishna Committee Report addresses issues related to data security. What, in your view, are the strengths and weaknesses of the Report relating to protection of personal data in cyber space?

13. India’s proximity to the two of the world’s biggest illicit opium growing states has enhanced her internal security concerns. Explain the linkages between drug trafficking and other illicit activities such as gunrunning, money laundering and human trafficking. What counter measures should be taken to prevent the same?

14. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is viewed as a cardinal subset of China’s larger ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative. Give a brief description of CPEC and enumerate the reasons why India has distanced itself from the same.

15. Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is showing a downward trend, but still affects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the Government of India’s approach to counter the challenges posed by LWE.

2017

16. The scourge of terrorism is a grave challenge to national security. What solutions do you suggest to curb this growing menace? What are the major sources of terrorist funding?

17. Discuss the potential threats of Cyber attack and the security framework to prevent it.

18. The North-Eastern region of India has been infested with insurgency for a very long time. Analyze the major reasons for the survival of armed insurgency in this region.

19. Mob violence is emerging as a serious law and order problem in India. By giving suitable examples, analyze the causes and consequences of such violence.

2016

20. Use of internet and social media by non-state actors for subversive activities is a major security concern. How have these been misused in the recent past? Suggest effective guidelines to curb the above threat.

21. Border management is a complex task due to difficult terrain and hostile relations with some countries. Elucidate the challenges and strategies for effective border management

22. The terms ‘Hot Pursuit’ and ‘Surgical Strikes’ are often used in connection with armed action against terrorist attacks. Discuss the strategic impact of such actions.

23. ‘Terrorism is emerging as a competitive industry over the last few decades.” Analyse the above statement.

2015

24. Religious indoctrination via digital media has resulted in Indian youth joining the

25. The persisting drives of the Government for development of large industries in backward areas have resulted in isolating the tribal population and the farmers who face multiple displacements. With Malkangiri and Naxalbari foci, discuss the corrective strategies needed to win the Left Wing Extremism (LWE) doctrine affected citizens back into the mainstream of social and economic growth.

26. Considering the threats cyberspace poses for the country, India needs a “Digital Armed Forces” to prevent crimes. Critically evaluate the National Cyber Security Policy, 2013 outlining the challenges perceived in its effective implementation.

27. Discuss the advantages and security implications of cloud hosting of servers vis-a-vis in-house machine-based hosting for government businesses.

28. Human right activists constantly highlight the view that the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) is a draconian act leading to cases of human rights abuses by the security forces. What sections of AFSPA are opposed by the activists? Critically evaluate the requirement with reference to the view held by the Apex Court.

2014

29. In 2012, the longitudinal marking for high-risk areas for piracy was moved from 65 degrees east to 78 degrees east in the Arabian Sea by the International Maritime Organization. What impact does this have on India’s maritime security concerns?

30. China and Pakistan have entered into an agreement for development of an economic corridor. What threat does this pose for India’s security? Critically examine.

31. “The diverse nature of India as a multi-religious and multi-ethnic society is not immune to the impact of radicalism which is seen in her neighbourhood.” Discuss along with strategies to be adopted to counter this environment.

32. International civil aviation laws provide all countries complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above their territory. What do you understand by ‘airspace? What are the implications of these laws on the space above this airspace? Discuss the challenges which this poses and suggest ways to contain the threat.

33. How does illegal transborder migration pose a threat to India’s security? Discuss the strategies to curb this, bringing out the factors which give impetus to such migration

2013

34. Aricle 244 of the Indian Constitution relates to administration of scheduled areas and tribal areas. Analyse the impact of non-implementation of the provisions of the Fifth schedule on the growth of Left Wing extremism.

35. How far are India’s internal security challenges linked with border management particularly in view of the long porous borders with most countries of South Asia and Myanmar?

36. Money laundering poses a serious security threat to a country’s economic sovereignty. What is its significance for India and what steps are required to be taken to control this menace?

37. What are social networking sites and what security implications do these sites present?

38. Cyber warfare is considered by some defense analysts to be a larger threat than even Al Qaeda or terrorism. What do you understand by Cyber warfare? Outline the cyber threats which India is vulnerable to and bring out the state of the country’s preparedness to deal with the same.

ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY

2021

1. Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at the World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA)?

2. Describe the key points of the revised Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) recently released by the World Health Organisation (WHO). How are these different from its last update in 2005? What changes in India’s National Clean Air Programme are required to achieve these revised standards?

3. Describe the major outcomes of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). What are the commitments made by India in this conference?

2019

1. Define the concept of carrying capacity of an ecosystem as relevant to an environment. Explain how understanding this concept is vital while planning for sustainable development of a region.

2. Coastal sand mining, whether legal or illegal, poses one of the biggest threats to our environment.Analyze the impact of sand mining along the Indians coasts, citing specific examples.

 

2018

3. Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State’ in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State?

4. How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna?

5. What are the impediments disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid waste which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulated in our habitable environment?

6. What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.

2017

7. ‘Climate change’ is a global problem. How India will be affected by climate change? How Himalayan and coastal states of India will be affected by climate change?

8. Not many years ago, river linking was a concept but it is becoming reality in the country. Discuss the advantages of river linking and its possible impact on the environment.

2016

9. Rehabilitation of human settlements is one of the important environmental impacts which always attracts controversy while planning major projects. Discuss the measures suggested for mitigation of this impact while proposing major developmental projects.

2015

10. Discuss the Namami Gange and National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?

2014

11. Environmental Impact Assessment studies are increasingly undertaken before a project is cleared by the Government. Discuss the environmental impacts of coal-fired thermal plants located at coal pitheads.

2013

12. Enumerate the National Water Policy of India. Taking river Ganges as an example, discuss the strategies which may be adopted for river water pollution control and management. What are the legal provisions of management and handling of hazardous wastes in India?

13. What are the consequences of Illegal mining? Discuss the Ministry of Environment and Forests’ concept of GO AND NO GO zones for coal mining sector

ETHICS

2021

1. (a) Identify five ethical traits on which one can plot the performance of a civil servant. Justify their inclusion in the matrix.
(b) Identify ten essential values that are needed to be an effective public servant. Describe the /ways and means to prevent non-ethical behaviour in the public servants.

2. (a) Impact of digital technology as reliable source of input for rational decision making is debatable issue. Critically evaluate with suitable example.
(b) Besides domain knowledge, a public official needs innovativeness and creativity of a high order as well, while resolving ethical dilemmas. Discuss with suitable example.

3. What does each of the following quotations mean to you?
(a) “Every work has got to pass through hundreds of difficulties before succeeding. Those that persevere will see the light, sooner or later. —Swami Vivekananda (b) “We can never obtain peace in the outer world until and unless we obtain peace within ourselves.” – Dalai Lama
(c) Life doesn’t make any sense without interdependence. We need each other, and the sooner we learn that, it is better for us all.” -Erik Erikson word

4. (a) Attitude is an important component that goes as input in the elopement of human How to build a suitable needed for a public servant?
(b) In case of crisis of conscience does emotional intelligence help to overcome the same without compromising the ethical or moral stand that you are likely to follow? Critically examine.

5. (a) “Refugees should not be turned back to the country where they would face persecution or human right violation.” Examine the statement with reference to ethical dimension being violated by the nation claiming to be democratic with open society.
(b) Should impartial and being non-partisan be considered as indispensable qualities to make a successful civil servant? Discuss with illustrations.

6. (a) An independent and empowered social audit mechanism is an absolute must in every sphere of public service, including judiciary, to ensure performance, accountability and ethical conduct. Elaborate.
(b) “Integrity is a value that empowers the human being.” Justify with suitable illustration.

2020

1. (a) Discuss the role of ethics and values in enhancing the following three major components of Comprehensive National Power (CNP) viz. human capital, soft power (culture and policies) and social harmony. (150 words) 10
(b) “Education is not an injunction, it is an effective and pervasive tool for all round development of an individual and social transformation”. Examine the New Education Policy, 2020 (NEP, 2020) in light of the above statement. (150 words)10

2. (a) 'Hatred is destructive of a person's wisdom and conscience that can poison a nation's spirit. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer. (150 words)
(b) What are the main components of emotional intelligence (EI) ? Can they be learned? Discuss.(150 words)

3. (a )What teachings of Buddha are most relevant today and why? Discuss. (150 words)
(b) 'The will to power exits, but it can be tamed and be guided by rationality and principles of moral duty.' Examine this statement in the context of international relations. (150 words)

4 (a) Distinguish between laws and rules. Discuss the role of ethics in formulating them. (150 words)
(b) A positive attitude is considered to be an essential characteristic of a civil servant who is often required to function under extreme stress. What contributes a positive attitude in person.? (150 words)

5. (a) What are the main factors responsible for gender inequality in India ? Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in this regard. (150 words)
(b) 'The current internet expansion has instilled a different set of cultural values which are often in conflict with traditional values.' Discuss. (150 words)

6 What do each of the following quotations mean to you?
(a) "Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand do so. If not fold your hands, bless your brothers and let them go their own way." – Swami Vivekanand (150 words)
(b)"The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in service of others ." Mahatma Gandhi(150 words)
(c) "A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” – Socrates. (150 words)

2019

1. (a) What are the basic principles of public life? Illustrate any three of these with suitable examples.
(b) What do you understand by the term ‘public servant’? Reflect on the expected role of public servant.

2.(a) What is meant by the term ‘constitutional morality’? How does one uphold constitutional morality? (b) What is meant by ‘crisis of conscience’? How does it manifest itself in the public domain?

3.(a) Explain the basic principles of citizens charter movement and bring out its importance. (b) There is a view that the Official Secrets Act is an obstacle to the implementation of Right to Information Act. Do you agree with the view? Discuss.

4.(a) What do you understand by probity in governance? Based on your understanding of the term, suggest measures for ensuring probity in government. (b) “Emotional Intelligence is the ability to make your emotions work for you instead of against you”. Do you agree with this view? Discuss

What do each of the following quotations mean to you? 5.(a) “An unexamined life is not worth living”. – Socrates (b) “A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks he becomes.” – M.K. Gandhi (c) “Where there is righteousness in the heart, there is beauty in the character. When there is beauty in the character, there is harmony in the home. When there is harmony in the home, there is order in the nation. When there is order in the nation, there is peace in the world” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

6.(a) Effective utilization of public funds is crucial to meet development goals. Critically examine the reasons for under-utilization and mis-utilization of public funds and their implications. (b) “Non-performance of duty by a public servant is a form of corruption”. Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer.

2018

7. (a) Suppose the Government of India is thinking of constructing a dam in a mountain valley bound by forests and inhabited by ethnic communities. What rational policy should it resort to in dealing with unforeseen contingencies? (b) Explain the process of resolving ethical dilemmas in Public Administration

8. What do each of the following quotations means to you in the present context? (a) “The true rule, in determining to embrace, or reject any thing, is not whether it has any evil in it; but whether it has more evil than good. There are few things wholly evil or wholly good. Almost every thing, especially of government policy, is an inseparable compound of the two; so that our best judgment of the preponderance between them is continually demanded.” – Abraham Lincoln. (b) “Anger and intolerance are the enemies of correct understanding.” – Mahatma Gandhi. (c) “Falsehood takes the place of truth when it results in unblemished common good.” – Tirukkural

9. (a) State the three basic values, universal in nature, in the context of civil services and bring out their importance. (b) Distinguish between “Code of ethics” and “Code of conduct” with suitable examples.

10. (a) What is meant by conflict of interest? Illustrate with examples, the difference between the actual and potential conflicts of interest. (b) “In looking for people to hire, you look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence and energy. And if they do not have the first, the other two will kill you.” —Warren Buffet What do you understand by this statement in the present-day scenario? Explain.

11. (a) “In doing a good thing, everything is permitted which is not prohibited expressly or by clear implication.” Examine the statement with suitable examples in the context of a public servant discharging his/her duties.(b) With regard to morality of actions, one view is that means are of paramount importance and the other view is that the ends justify the means. Which view do you think is more appropriate? Justify your answer.

12. (a) What is meant by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by civil servants in public interest? (b) “The Right to Information Act is not all about citizens’ empowerment alone, it essentially redefines the concept of accountability.” Discuss

 

2017

13. (a) The crisis of ethical values in modern times is traced to a narrow perception of the good life.Discuss. (b) Increased national wealth did not result in equitable distribution of its benefits. It has created only some “enclaves of modernity and prosperity for a small minority at the cost of the majority.” Justify.

14. (a) Discipline generally implies following the order and subordination. However, it may be counterproductive for the organisation. Discuss. (b) Without commonly shared and widely entrenched moral values and obligations, neither the law, nor democratic government, nor even the market economy will function properly. What do you understand by this statement? Explain with illustration in the contemporary times.

15. Conflict of interest in the public sector arises when (a) official duties, (b) public interest, and (c) personal interest are taking priority one above the other. How can this conflict in administration be resolved? Describe with an example

16. Young people with ethical conduct are not willing to come forward to join active politics. Suggest steps to motivate them to come forward.

17. (a) One of the tests of integrity is complete refusal to be compromised. Explain with reference to a real life example. (b) Corporate social responsibility makes companies more profitable and sustainable. Analyse.

18. (a) “Great ambition is the passion of a great character. Those endowed with it may perform very good or very bad acts. All depends on the principles which direct them.” – Napoleon Bonaparte. Stating examples mention the rulers (i) who have harmed society and country, (ii) who worked for the development of society and country. (b) “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are the father, the mother and the teacher.” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Analyse.

19. (a) How will you apply emotional intelligence in administrative practices? (b) Strength, peace and security are considered to be the pillars of international relations. Elucidate.

20. Examine the relevance of the following in the context of civil service: (a) Transparency (b) Accountability (c) Fairness and Justice (d) Courage of Conviction (e) Spirit of service

2016

21. Our attitudes towards life, work, other people and society are generally shaped unconsciously by the family and the social surroundings in which we grow up. Some of these unconsciously acquired attitudes and values are often undesirable in the citizens of a modern democratic and egalitarian society. (a) Discuss such undesirable values prevalent in today's educated Indians. (b) How can such undesirable attitudes be changed and socioethical values considered necessary in public services be cultivated in the aspiring and serving civil servants?

22. Anger is a harmful negative emotion. It is injurious to both personal life and work life.(a) Discuss how it leads to negative emotions and undesirable behaviours. (b) How can it be managed and controlled?

23. “Max Weber said that it is not wise to apply to public administration the sort of moral and ethical norms we apply to matters of personal conscience. It is important to realize that the state bureaucracy might possess its own independent bureaucratic morality.” Critically analyse this statement.

24. (a) Explain how ethics contributes to social and human well-being. (b) Why should impartiality and non-partisanship be considered as foundational values in public services, especially in the present day socio-political context? Illustrate your answer with examples.

25. (a) What do you understand by the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’? (b) Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s Concept of seven sin.

26. (a) Analyse John Rawls’s concept of social justice in the Indian context. (b) Discuss the Public Services Code as recommended by the 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission

 

27. (a) “Corruption causes misuse of government treasury, administrative inefficiency and obstruction in the path of national development.” Discuss Kautilya’s views. (b) How could social influence and persuasion contribute to the success of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan?

28. Law and Ethics are considered to be the two tools for controlling human conduct so as to make it conducive to civilized social existence. (a) Discuss how they achieve this objective. (b) Discuss how they achieve this objective.

2015

29. (a) What is meant by ‘environmental ethics’? Why is it important to study? Discuss any one environmental issue from the viewpoint of environmental ethics. (b) Differentiate between the following: Law and Ethics Ethical management and Management of ethics Discrimination and Preferential treatment Personal ethics and Professional ethics

30. Given are two quotations of moral thinkers/philosophers. For each of these, bring out what it means to you in the present context: (a) “The weak can never forgive; forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.” (b) “We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light

31. (a) “A mere compliance with law is not enough, the public servant also has to have a well-developed sensibility to ethical issues for effective discharge of duties.” Do you agree? Explain with the help of two examples, where (i) an act is ethically right, but not legally and (ii) an act is legally right, but not ethically. (b) How do the virtues of trustworthiness and fortitude get manifested in public service? Explain with examples

32. (a) “Social values are more important than economic values.” Discuss the above statement with examples in the context of inclusive growth of a nation. (b) Some recent developments such as introduction of RTI Act, media and judicial activism, etc., are proving helpful in bringing about greater transparency and accountability in the functioning of the government. However, it is also being observed that at times the mechanisms are misused. Another negative effect is that the officers are now afraid to take prompt decisions. Analyze this situation in detail and suggest how this dichotomy can be resolved. Suggest how these negative impacts can be minimized

33. Two different kinds of attitudes exhibited by public servants towards their work have been identified as the bureaucratic attitude and the democratic attitude. (a) Distinguish between these two terms and write their merits and demerits, (b) Is it possible to balance the two to create a better administration for the faster development of our country?

34. Today we find that in spite of various measures like prescribing codes of conduct, setting up vigilence cells/commissions, RTI, active media and strengthening of legal mechanisms, corrupt practices are not coming under control. (a) Evaluate the effectiveness of these measures with justifications. (b) Suggest more effective strategies to tackle this menace.

35. At the international level, the bilateral relations between most nations are governed on the policy of promoting one’s own national interest without any regard for the interest of other nations. This leads to conflicts and tensions between the nations. How can ethical consideration help resolve such tensions? Discuss with specific examples.

36. Public servants are likely to confront with the issues of ‘Conflict of Interest’. What do you understand by the term ‘Conflict of Interest’ and how does it manifest in the decision making by public servants? If faced with the conflict of interest situation, how would you resolve it? Explain with the help of examples.

GEOGRAPHY

2021

1. Differentiate the causes of landslides in the Himalayan region and Western Ghats

2. Despite India being one of the countries of the Gondwanaland, its mining industry contributes much less to its Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in percentage. Discuss

3. what are the environmental implications of the reclamation of the water bodies into urban land use? Explain with examples

4. Mention the global occurrence of volcanic eruptions in 2021 and their impact on regional environment.

5. Why is India considered as a sub-continent? Elaborate your answer.

6. . Briefly mention the alignment of major mountain ranges of the world and explain their impact on local weather conditions, with examples.

7. . How do the melting of the Arctic ice and glaciers of the Antarctic differently affect the weather patterns and human activities on the Earth? Explain.

8. Discuss the multi-dimensional implications of uneven distribution of mineral oil in the world.

9. What are the main socio-economic implications arising out of the development of IT industries in major cities of India?

2020

1. Discuss the geophysical characteristics of Circum-Pacific Zone. (Answer in 150 words)

2. The process of desertification does not have climatic boundaries. Justify with examples. (Answer in 150 words)

3. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India? (Answer in 150 words

4. Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples.(Answer in 150 words)

5. The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problems of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine. (Answer in 250 words)

6. Account for the huge flooding of million cities in India including the smart ones like Hyderabad and Pune. Suggest lasting remedial measures. (Answer in 250 words)

7. India has immense potential of solar energy though there are regional variations in its development. Elaborate. (Answer in 250 words)

8. Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change. (Answer in 250 words)

2019

1. How can the mountain ecosystem be restored from the negative impact of development initiatives and tourism?

2. How is efficient and affordable urban mass transport key to the rapid economic development of India?

3. How do ocean currents and water masses differ in their impacts on marine life and coastal environment?

4. Can the strategy of regional resource-based manufacturing help in promoting employment in India?

5. Discuss the factors for localisation of agro-based food processing industries of North-West India

6. Empowering women is the key to control population growth." Discuss

7. What is water stress? How and why does it differ regionally in India?

8. Assess the impact of global warming on the coral life system with examples

9. Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology.

2018

1. “The ideal solution of depleting ground water resources in India is water harvesting system”. How can it be made effective in urban areas?

2. Defining blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India

3. What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identifying industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics.

4. Mention core strategies for the transformation of aspirational districts in India & explain the nature of convergence, collaboration & Competition for its success

5. Why is Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) needed? How does it help in navigation?

6. Why is India taking keen interest in resources of Arctic region?

7. Define mantle plume and explain its role in plate tectonics.

8. What are the consequences of spreading of ‘Dead Zones’ on marine ecosystems?

2017

1. Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located nearer to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many of the developing countries. Explain its implications.

2. In what way can floods be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India?

3. What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the world population residing in Monsoon Asia?

4. “The growth of cities as I.T. hubs has opened up new avenues of employment, but has also created new problems”. Substantiate this statement with examples

5. Account for variations in oceanic salinity and discuss its multidimensional effects

6. How does the Juno Mission of NASA help to understand the origin and evolution of the Earth?

7. “In spite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development”. Discuss

8. Mention the advantages of the cultivation of pulses because of which the year 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by United Nations.

9. How does the cryosphere affect global climate?

2016

1. South China Sea has assumed great geopolitical significance in the present context. Comment.

2. Major cities of India are becoming vulnerable to flood conditions. Discuss.

3. Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations.

4. Enumerate the problems and prospects of inland water transport in India.

5. In what way micro-watershed development projects help in water conservation in drought-prone and semi-arid regions of India?

6. With a brief background of quality of urban life in India, introduce the objectives and strategy of the ‘Smart City Programme.

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