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The advent of the Internet, a transformative system architecture, has redefined global communication and commerce by seamlessly connecting diverse computer networks worldwide. In a significant decision made during a meeting in Marrakesh, Morocco, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) has transitioned to a governance model known as “multi-stakeholder,” incorporating representation from businesses, individual users, and government members globally.

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ICANN and its present governance architecture

  • Founded in 1998, ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is a non-profit organization tasked with managing domain names and Internet protocol addresses (IPs) globally.
  • ICANN was entrusted with the management of the Internet by the US Commerce Department’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) under a contract, which is set to expire on September 30.
  • Despite concerns from various countries regarding the US’s dominance over the Internet, IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), responsible for country codes, Internet numbers, and protocols, became a part of ICANN.
  • ICANN’s structure makes it accountable solely to U.S. law and courts.
  • The primary concern of non-U.S. stakeholders is the potential for unilateral interference by the US in ICANN’s policy process and the operation of the Internet’s root server.

How does the internet work?

Once we’ve grasped the essence of the internet, understanding its operational mechanics becomes imperative. Data transmission is consistent and dependable, delivered in discrete packets to each user. Governing this transfer are the Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), ensuring data integrity across diverse platforms.

At the heart of this system is the IP address, a numerical guide directing data flow between devices. It ensures every packet reaches its destination without loss. From a browser’s perspective, connectivity begins with a modem linking devices to the internet and assigning a unique IP address, managed by the Internet Service Provider (ISP).

When a user inputs a search query, the browser navigates to sources identified by their distinctive Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). Here, the Domain Name System (DNS) plays a crucial role, translating textual domain names into IP addresses.

Foundation of the internet

The foundation of the modern internet, based on internet protocol, can be attributed to the collaborative efforts of scientists Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf. However, its origins trace back to 1969, when the concept of packet switching was introduced by the NPL network, leading to the development of ARPANET. Similar networks such as CYCLADES and the Merit Network emerged for file sharing among connected devices. In 1981, the National Science Foundation sponsored the Network of Computer Science, expanding network access. The widespread adoption of the internet gained momentum with NSFNet’s promotion in 1986. Researchers began leveraging supercomputers for their work, facing challenges such as power consumption and storage limitations.

Uses of the Internet

The internet serves a multitude of purposes, from answering basic queries entered into search engines to facilitating complex actions like uploading, sharing, and downloading files from specific servers, or webpages. It’s a vast wellspring of entertainment, much of which is freely accessible. This accessibility marks a global revolution for users. Crucial tasks like online banking thrive due to the internet, offering time and energy savings. Additionally, e-commerce websites enable convenient shopping experiences, all thanks to the internet’s invention.

Advantages and disadvantages


  • Facilitates global connectivity, bridging distances and fostering communication.
  • Affordable for a wide portion of society, enabling broad access and participation.
  • Houses genuine and creatively curated user-generated content, captivating audiences.
  • A versatile platform offering entertainment, e-commerce, navigation, banking, and more.


  • Excessive usage among younger generations leads to reduced productivity and stifled creativity.
  • Users fall victim to phishing scams, resulting in financial or intellectual losses.
  • Susceptible to malware, posing a threat to device security.
  • Presence of unethical video material, violent imagery, and disturbing audio adversely impacts public psyche.

The internet is now essential in our lives, shaping how we interact, work, and find information. It’s important to choose wisely online. It’s like a big marketplace where we can make informed decisions and find what we need easily.


Initially conceived as a groundbreaking project by the U.S. Department of Defense in the 1960s, the Internet, formerly known as ARPANET, serves as a global network linking computer systems worldwide. Its primary function is to facilitate interaction and communication among users on a shared platform. Despite its wide-ranging applications and significance, opinions on its responsible utilization remain contentious globally.

Read also: Intellectual Property Rights in India

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