UPSC Study Material

GEOGRAPHY FOR UPSC

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PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY FOR UPSC

Geomorphology

  • The origin of the Earth
  • Early Theories
  • Modern Theories – BBT
  • Star Formation
  • Formation of Planets
  • Solar System
  • The Evolution of the Earth
  • Layered Structure (5 layers)
  • Evolution of Lithosphere
  • Evolution of Atmosphere
  • Evolution of Hydrosphere
  • Geological History of the Earth
  • Earth
  • Latitude and Longitude including important Parallels and Meridians
  • Motions of the Earth – Rotation, Revolution and their effects
  • Inclination of the Earth’s Axis and its effects
  • Local and Standard Time and the International Date Line, Calendar
  • Eclipses – Solar, Lunar
  • Origin of Life
  • Geological Time Scale
  • Interior of the Earth
  • Sources of Information
  • Direct
  • Indirect – Earth Quake Waves Volcanoes
  • Crust
  • Mantle
  • Core
  • Geology
  • Minerals
  • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
  • Minerals – Feldspar, Quartz, Pyroxene Amphibole, Mica, Olivine
  • Physical Characteristics- Crystal Form, Cleavage Fracture, Lusture, Color, Streak
  • Transparency, Structure, Hardness, Specific Gravity
  • Metallic minerals – precious Ferrous, Non Ferrous
  • Non-metallic Minerals – Sulphur, Phosphates, Cement
  • Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals)
  • Petrology
  • Rocks & landforms
  • Rocks & Soils
  • 3 Family of Rocks
    • Igneous
    • Sedimentary
    • Metamorphic
  • Rock Cycle
  • Earthquakes
  • Waves: P, S, Body, Surface
  • Shadow Zone
  • Types of Earthquakes
  • Effects
  • Frequency
  • Locating an Epicenter
  • Volcano
  • Types
  • Shield
  • Composite
  • Caldera
  • Flood Basalt
  • Mid Ocean Ridge
  • Landforms (intrusive)
  • Batholiths
  • Laccoliths
  • Lapoliths
  • Phacoliths
  • Sills
  • Dykes
  • Geomorphic Processes
  • Earth’s Surface
  • Exogenic Forces
  • Endogenic Forces
  • Gradation, Degradation & Aggradations
  • Geomorphic Process
  • Endogenic Process
  • Diastrophism
    • Orogenic
    • Epierogenic
    • Earthquakes
    • Plate movements
  • Volcanism
  • Exogenic Forces
  • Denudation Processes
  • Weathering
  • Mass movements
  • Erosion Transportation & Deposition
  • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
  • Theories
  • Continental Drift Theory
  • Alfred Wegner 1912
  • Pangea, Panthalasa
  • Laurasia, Gondwanaland
  • Evidence in support of Continental Drift Theory
  • Jigsaw Fit
  • Rocks of Same age across oceans
  • Tillite
  • Placer Deposits
  • Distribution of Fossils
  • Forces of Drifting
  • Pole Fleeing Force
  • Tidal Force
  • Post Drift Studies
  • Convectional Current Theory
  • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
  • Continents – plate Tectonics
  • Lithospheric Plates
  • Major Plate
  • Minor Plates
  • Plate Boundaries
  • Divergent
  • Convergent
  • Transform
  • Rates of Plate Movements
  • Force of plate movements
  • Indian Plate
  • Movement from 71mnyrs ago till Today
  • Landforms and their Evolution
  • Causes
  • Geomorphic Processes
  • Agents
  • Geomorphic Agents
  • Erosional or Destructional
  • Depositional or Constructional
  • Agents and their Impacts
  • Wind, Running Water, Ground Water, Glaciers, Waves & Currents
  • Winds
  • One of the Two dominant agents in Hot deserts
  • Cause – Deflation Abrasion Impact
  • Erosional landforms
  • Pediments and Pedi plains
  • Playas
  • Deflation Hollows and Caves
  • Mushroom, Table & Pedestal Rocks
  • Depositional Landforms
  • Barchans
  • Self
  • Parabolic
  • Transverse
  • Longitudinal
  • Running Water
  • Humid Regions
  • 2 Components
  • Overland Flow – Sheet
  • Linear Flow – Streams
  • Stages
  • Youth Mature Old
  • Erosional Landforms
  • Valleys
  • Rills
  • Gullies
  • Valleys – V Shape, Gorge (Hard Rocks), Canyon (Sedimentary)
  • Potholes & Plunge pools
  • Incised or entrenched meanders
  • River Terraces – paired & unpaired
  • Depositional Landforms
  • Alluvial Fans
  • Delta
  • Flood Plains, Natural Levees, Point Bars
  • Meanders, Slip off Bank, Undercut bank
  • Oxbow lake
  • Braided Channels
  • Groundwater (Karsts Topography)
  • Permeable Rocks
  • Percolation
  • Bedding Plains
  • Limestone and Dolomite Regions
  • Balkans, Adjacent to Adriatic regions
  • Erosional Landforms
  • Pools – Swallow Hole, Valley Sinks (Uvalas), Sinkholes, Collapse sinks (Dolines), Lapis, Ridges, Limestone Pavements
  • Caves – Altering bed of Rocks (Shale sandstone quartzite), Caves and Tunnels
  • Depositional Landforms
  • Stalactites
  • Stalagmites
  • Pillar Columns
  • Glaciers
  • Erosional Landforms
  • Cirque of Tarn Lakes
  • Hors and Serrated Regions – Arete
  • Glacial Valleys/ Troughs – Fiords
  • Depositional Landforms
  • Glacial Tills
  • Moraines
  • Eskers
  • Outwash Planes
  • Drumlins
  • Waves and Currents
  • High Rocky Coasts & Low Sedimentary Coasts
  • Erosional Landforms
  • Cliffs
  • Terraces
  • Caves
  • Stacks
  • Depositional Landforms
  • Beaches and Dunes
  • Bars Barriers Spits
  • Weathering
  • Weather over Earth Materials
  • Factors
  • Geological
  • Climatic
  • Topographic
  • Vegetative
  • Major Processes
  • Chemical
  • Physical or Mechanical
  • Biological
  • Chemical – Forces Chemical Action
  • Solution
  • Carbonation
  • Hydration
  • Oxidation & Reduction
  • Physical Forces Gravitational, Expansion, Water Pressure
  • Unloading & Expansion
  • Temperature changes and Expansion
  • Freezing, Thawing, & Frost Wedging
  • Salt Wedging
  • Biological Weathering
  • Burrowing
  • Wedging
  • Plant Roots
  • Effects of Weathering
  • Exfoliation (Flaking) – Exfoliation Domes, Tors
  • Significance of Weathering
  • Soil Formation
  • Biomes and Biodiversity
  • Leaching/ Enrichment
  • Mass Movements
  • Activating causes
  • Forms of movement – Heave Flow Slide
  • 3 major Groups – Slow Movement, Rapid Movements, landSlides
  • Landforms across the world:
  • Rivers and lakes
  • Mountain and Peaks
  • Plateaus
  1. Climatology
  • Composition
  • Gases
  • Water Vapour
  • Dust Particles
  • Structure
  • Exosphere
  • Thermosphere
  • Mesosphere
  • Stratosphere
  • Troposphere
  • Altitude vs Temperature
  • Solar Radiation Heat Balance Temperature
  • Insolation
  • Aphelion and Perihelion
  • Variability of Insolation at the surface of the Earth
  • Day Season Year
  • Rotation on Axis, Angle of Inclination of sun rays, Length of the day
  • Transparency of Atmosphere, configuration of land in terms of its aspect
  • Heat Balance
  • Heating and cooling of atmosphere
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Advection
  • Terrestrial Radiation
  • Heat Budget of the Planet Earth
  • Marco Budget
  • Albedo
  • Shortwave Radiation
  • Longwave Earth Radiation
  • Variation in the net Heat Budget at the Earth’s Surface
  • Temperature
  • Factors controlling T distribution
  • Distribution of T Month of January – July
  • Range of T Month of January – July
  • Inversion of Temperature
  • Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
  • Atmospheric Pressure
  • Vertical variation of pressure
  • Horizontal distribution of pressure
  • World Distribution of Sea Level Pressure
  • Factors affecting the velocity and direction of the WIND
  • Pressure Gradient Force
  • Frictional Force
  • Coriolis Force
  • Pressure and Wind (Cyclonic & Anticyclone Circulation)
  • General Circulation of the Atmosphere – Pattern of Planetary Winds
  • Latitudinal Variation of Atmospheric Heating
  • Emergence of Pressure Belts
  • Migration of Belts Following apparent Path of Sun
  • Distribution of continents & Oceans
  • Rotation of the Earth
  • Circulation
  • Simplified Global Circulation – Hadley Cell, Ferrell Cell
  • Seasonal Wind
  • Local Wind
  • Land and Sea Breezes
  • Mountain and Valley winds
  • AIR MASS – fronts
  • Extra Tropical Cyclone
  • Thunderstorms
  • Tornadoes
  • Water in the Atmosphere
  • Water Vapour
  • Precipitation
  • Humidity – Absolute and Relative
  • Saturation – Dew Point
  • Evaporation and Condensation
  • Dew
  • Frost
  • Fog & Mist
  • Clouds
  • Types – Cirrus Cumulus Stratus Nimbus
  • High – Cirrus Cirrostratus Cirrocumulus
  • Middle – Altostratus Altocumulus
  • Low – Stratocumulus Nimbostratus
  • Vertical Development – Cumulus and Cumulonimbus
  • Precipitation
  • Rainfall
  • Snowfall
  • Sleet
  • Hail
  • Hailstones
  • Types of Rainfall
  • Convectional
  • Orographic
  • Cyclonic
  • World Distribution of Rainfall
  • World Climate
  • The Hot, Wet Equatorial Climate
  • The Tropical Monsoon and Tropical Marine Climates
  • The Savanna or Sudan Climate
  • The Hot Desert and Mid-Latitude Desert Climates
  • The Warm Temperate Western Margin (Mediterranean) Climate
  • The Temperate Continental (Steppe) Climate
  • The Warm Temperate Eastern Margin (China Type) Climate
  • The Cool Temperate Western Margin (British Type) Climate
  • The Cool Temperate Continental (Siberian) Climate
  • The Cool Temperate Eastern Margin (Lauren-tian) Climate
  • The Arctic or Polar Climate
  1. Oceanography
  • Water on the Surface of the Earth
  • Hydrological Cycle
  • Processes
  • Oceans
  • Relief of the Ocean floor
  • 4 divisions of the ocean floor
  • Continental Shelf
  • Continental Slope
  • Deep sea plain
  • Oceanic deep and Trenches
  • Minor relief features
  • Mid-oceanic ridges
  • Seamount
  • Submarine canyons
  • Guy outs
  • Atoll
  • Temperature of the Ocean Water
  • Vertical
  • Spatial
  • Factors affecting Temperature distribution
  • Latitude
  • Unequal distribution of land & Water
  • Prevailing wind
  • Ocean Currents
  • Horizontal & Vertical Distribution
  • Thermocline
  • 3 layers
  • Salinity of the Ocean Water
  • Factors affecting salinity
  • Evaporation and precipitation
  • Freshwater flow from rivers
  • Wing
  • Ocean currents
  • Horizontals distribution of salinity
  • Vertical Distribution of salinity
  • Density of Ocean Waters
  • Movements of ocean Water
  • Factors influencing Movement
  • Temperature
  • Salinity
  • Density
  • Sun MOON WINDS
  • Motion – Horizontal & Vertical Currents
  • Characteristic of WAVE
  • Crest and Trough
  • Height
  • Amplitude
  • Period
  • Length
  • Speed
  • Frequency
  • Tides
  • Relation between Gravitational Forces and Tides
  • Tidal currents
  • Types of Tides
  • Based on Frequency – Semi Diurnal, Diurnal, mixed
  • Based on SME position – spring and Neap Tides
  • Importance of Tides
  • Ocean Currents
  • Influenced by 2 forces
  • Primary Force that initiates the movement
  • Heating of solar energy
  • Wind
  • Gravity
  • Coriolis force
  • Secondary force that influence the currents to flow
  • Characteristic – Drift – 5 knots
  • Types of ocean currents
  • Surface currents & Deep water currents based on Depth
  • Cold and Warm Currents based on Temperature
  • Major Ocean currents of the World
  • Effects of Ocean Currents
  1. Water Resource
  • Underground water resource
  • Surface water resources
  • Inland water resources: Utilization of inland water resources: Main features of ocean
  • Utilization of oceans by man
  • Water consumption patterns
  • Water pollution
  • Conservation of water resources
  • Techniques of water conservation
  1. Biogeography
  • Soil
  • Soil Characteristics
  • Factors Responsible for Soil Formation
  • Stages of Soil Formation
  • Soil Forming Processes
  • Soil Profiles and Horizons
  • Soil Classification
  • Soil Erosion and conservation
  • Vegetation resources
  • Types of natural vegetation
  • Forests
  • Significance of forests
  • Economic significance, Ecological significance
  • Cultural significance
  • Factors of forest development
  • Extent of forest cover
  • Classification of forests
  • Grasslands
  • Desert vegetation
  • Tundra vegetation
  • Economic utilization of forests
  • Deforestation
  • Deforestation in tropical forests
  • Deforestation in temperate forests
  • Rate and extent of deforestation
  • Causes and factors of deforestation: Immediate causes of deforestation
  • Indirect deforestation
  • Underlying causes of deforestation
  • Conservation of forests
  • Forest conservation strategies
  • Reforestation
  • Monoculture plantation
  • Afforestation
  • Types of forestry
  • Social forestry
  • Agroforestry

Indian Geography for UPSC: Prelims+Mains

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Indian Geography Mapping for UPSC

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Economic Geography for UPSC

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World Geography for UPSC

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