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UPSC (Mains) Previous Year Paper With Solution Subject Wise

AGRICULTURE

2021

1. How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India’s water crisis?

2. What are the salient features of the National Food Security Act, 2013? How has the Food Security Bill helped in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India?

3. What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification?.

2019

1. How far is Integrated Farming System (IFS) helpful in sustaining agricultural production

2. Elaborate the impact of the National Watershed Project in increasing agricultural production from waterstressed areas.

3. How was India benefited from the contributions of Sir M. Visvesvaraya and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan in the fields of water engineering and agricultural science respectively?.

2018

4. How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption.

5. What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap?

6. Assess the role of National Horticulture Mission (NHM) in boosting the production, productivity and income of horticulture farms. How far has it succeeded in increasing the income of farmers?.

7.Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables, and food items.How do they eliminate number of intermediaries?

2017

8. How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers?

9. What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilise the yield of the crops in the system?.

10. Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?

2016

11.Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non-farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sector in India

12.In view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non–viable for a majority of farmers, should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture? Critically evaluate the pros and cons.

13.What is allelopathy? Discuss its role in major cropping systems of irrigated agriculture.

14.Discuss the role of land reforms in agricultural development Identify the factors that were responsible for the success of land reforms in India.

15.Given the vulnerability of Indian agriculture to vagaries of nature, discuss the need for crop insurance and bring out the salient features of the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY).

16. What is water-use efficiency? Describe the role of micro-irrigation in increasing the water-use efficiency

2014

17. “In the villages itself no form of credit organization will be suitable except the cooperative society.” — All India Rural Credit Survey. Discuss this statement in the background of agricultural finance in India. What constraints and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finance face? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?

18. There is also a point of view that Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs) set up under the State Acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine..

2013

19. Establish relationship between land reforms, agriculture productivity and elimination of poverty in the Indian economy. Discuss the difficulties in designing and implementation of agriculture friendly land reforms in India.

20. India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for ensuring better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement.

21. What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and at state levels? Critically analyse the agricultural subsidy regime with reference to the distortions created by it.

GEOGRAPHY

2021

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  1. Indian Geography
  2. Geography by Maps

1. Differentiate the causes of landslides in the Himalayan region and Western Ghats

2. Despite India being one of the countries of the Gondwanaland, its mining industry contributes much less to its Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in percentage. Discuss

3. what are the environmental implications of the reclamation of the water bodies into urban land use? Explain with examples

4. Mention the global occurrence of volcanic eruptions in 2021 and their impact on regional environment.

5. Why is India considered as a sub-continent? Elaborate your answer.

6. . Briefly mention the alignment of major mountain ranges of the world and explain their impact on local weather conditions, with examples.

7. . How do the melting of the Arctic ice and glaciers of the Antarctic differently affect the weather patterns and human activities on the Earth? Explain.

8. Discuss the multi-dimensional implications of uneven distribution of mineral oil in the world.

9. What are the main socio-economic implications arising out of the development of IT industries in major cities of India?

2020

 

1. Discuss the geophysical characteristics of Circum-Pacific Zone. (Answer in 150 words)

2. The process of desertification does not have climatic boundaries. Justify with examples. (Answer in 150 words)

3. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India? (Answer in 150 words

4. Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples.(Answer in 150 words)

5. The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problems of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine. (Answer in 250 words)

6. Account for the huge flooding of million cities in India including the smart ones like Hyderabad and Pune. Suggest lasting remedial measures. (Answer in 250 words)

7. India has immense potential of solar energy though there are regional variations in its development. Elaborate. (Answer in 250 words)

8. Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change. (Answer in 250 words)

2019

 

1. How can the mountain ecosystem be restored from the negative impact of development initiatives and tourism?

2. How is efficient and affordable urban mass transport key to the rapid economic development of India?

3. How do ocean currents and water masses differ in their impacts on marine life and coastal environment?

4. Can the strategy of regional resource-based manufacturing help in promoting employment in India?

5. Discuss the factors for localisation of agro-based food processing industries of North-West India

6. Empowering women is the key to control population growth." Discuss

7. What is water stress? How and why does it differ regionally in India?

8. Assess the impact of global warming on the coral life system with examples

9. Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology.

2018

 

1. “The ideal solution of depleting ground water resources in India is water harvesting system”. How can it be made effective in urban areas?

2. Defining blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India

3. What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identifying industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics.

4. Mention core strategies for the transformation of aspirational districts in India & explain the nature of convergence, collaboration & Competition for its success

5. Why is Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) needed? How does it help in navigation?

6. Why is India taking keen interest in resources of Arctic region?

7. Define mantle plume and explain its role in plate tectonics.

8. What are the consequences of spreading of ‘Dead Zones’ on marine ecosystems?

2017

 

1. Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located nearer to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many of the developing countries. Explain its implications.

2. In what way can floods be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India?

3. What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the world population residing in Monsoon Asia?

4. “The growth of cities as I.T. hubs has opened up new avenues of employment, but has also created new problems”. Substantiate this statement with examples

5. Account for variations in oceanic salinity and discuss its multidimensional effects

6. How does the Juno Mission of NASA help to understand the origin and evolution of the Earth?

7. “In spite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development”. Discuss

8. Mention the advantages of the cultivation of pulses because of which the year 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by United Nations.

9. How does the cryosphere affect global climate?

2016

 

1. South China Sea has assumed great geopolitical significance in the present context. Comment.

2. Major cities of India are becoming vulnerable to flood conditions. Discuss.

3. Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations.

4. Enumerate the problems and prospects of inland water transport in India.

5. In what way micro-watershed development projects help in water conservation in drought-prone and semi-arid regions of India?

6. With a brief background of quality of urban life in India, introduce the objectives and strategy of the ‘Smart City Programme.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

2021

1. Explain the difference between computing methodology of Inda's Gross Domestic Product(GDP) before the year 2015 and after the year 2015.

2. Distinguish between Capital Budget and Revenue Budget. Explain the components of both these Budgets.

3. How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers ?

4. How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India's water crisis ?

5. Discuss how emerging technologies and globalisation contribute to money laundering. Elaborate measures to tackle the problem of money laundering both at national and international levels.

6. Do you agree that the Indian economy has recently experienced V-shaped recovery? Give reasons in support of your answer.

7. Investment in infrastructure is essential for more rapid and inclusive economic growth”. Discussin the light of India's experience.

8. What are the salient features of the National Food Security Act, 2013 ? How as the Food Security Bill helped in eliminating hunger and malnutrition in India?

9. What are the present challenges before crop diversification ? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification?

2020

10. Explain intra-generational and inter-generational issues of equity from the perspective of inclusive growth and sustainable development.

11. Define potential GDP and explain its determinants. What are the factors that have been inhibiting India from realizing its potential GDP?

12. What are the main constraints in transport and marketing of agricultural produce in India?

13. What are the challenges and opportunities in food processing sector in the country? How can income of the farmers be substantially increased by encouraging food processing?

14. What are the salient features of the Jal Shakti Abhiyan launched by the Government of India for water conservation and water security?

15.Explain the meaning of investment in an economy in terms of capital formation. Discuss the factors to be considered while designing a concession agreement between a public entity and a private entity.

16. Explain the rationale behind the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to states) act of 2017. How has COVID-19 impacted the GST compensation fund and created new federal tensions?

17. What are the major factors responsible for making rice-wheat system a success? In spite of this success how has this system become bane in India?

18. Describe the benefits of deriving electric energy from sunlight in contrast to the conventional energy generation. What are the initiatives offered by our government for this purpose?

2019

19. It is argued that the strategy of inclusive growth is intended to meet the objectives of inclusiveness and sustainability together. Comment on this statement

20. The public expenditure management is a challenge to the Government of India in context of budget making during the post liberalization period. Clarify it.

21. What are the reformative steps taken by the Government to make food grain distribution system more effective?

22. Elaborate the policy taken by the Government of India to meet the challenges of the food processing sector.

23. Enumerate the indirect taxes which have been subsumed in the goods and services tax (GST) in India. Also, comment on the revenue implications of the GST introduced in India since July 2017.

24. Do you agree with the view that steady GDP growth and low inflation have left the Indian economy in good shape? Give reasons in support of your arguments.

2018

23. How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India?

24. “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).” Comment on the progress made in India in this regard.

25. How are principles followed by the NITI Aayog different from those followed by erstwhile Planning Commission in India?

26. Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long Term Capital Gains Tax (LTCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018-2019.

2017

27. Account for the failure of manufacturing sector in achieving the goal of labour-intensive exports. Suggest measures for more labour-intensive rather than capital-intensive exports.

28. “Industrial growth rate has lagged behind in the overall growth of Gross-Domestic-Product (GDP) in the post-reform period” Give reasons. How far the recent changes in Industrial Policy are capable of increasing the industrial growth rate?

29. What are the salient features of ‘inclusive growth’? Has India been experiencing such a growth process? Analyse and suggest measures for inclusive growth.

30. Among several factors for India’s potential growth, savings rate is the most effective one. Do you agree? What are the other factors available for growth potential?

31. Examine the development of Airports in India through joint ventures under Public – Private Partnership (PPP) model. What are the challenges faced by the authorities in this regard.

32. What are the reasons for poor acceptance of cost-effective small processing unit? How the food processing unit will be helpful to uplift the socio-economic status of poor farmers?

33. One of the intended objectives of Union-Budget 2017-18 is to ‘transform, energize and clean India’. Analyze the measures proposed in the Budget 2017-18 to achieve the objective.

2016

34. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) is necessary for bringing unbanked to the institutional finance fold. Do you agree with this for financial inclusion of the poor section of the Indian society? Give arguments to justify your opinion.

35. Justify the need for FDI for the development of the Indian economy. Why there is gap between MoUs signed and actual FDIs? Suggest remedial steps to be taken for increasing actual FDIs in India.

36. Comment on the challenges for inclusive growth which include careless and useless manpower in the Indian context. Suggest measures to be taken for facing these challenges.

37. Give an account of the current status and the targets to be achieved pertaining to renewable energy sources in the country. Discuss in brief the importance of National Programme on Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs).

38. How globalization has led to the reduction of employment in the formal sector of the Indian economy? Is increased informalization detrimental to the development of the country?

39. Women empowerment in India needs gender budgeting. What are the requirements and status of gender budgeting in the Indian context?

40. What are ‘Smart Cities’? Examine their relevance for urban development in India. Will it increase rural-urban differences? Give arguments for ’Smart Villages’ in the light of PURA and RURBAN Mission.

2015

41. How can the ‘Digital India’ programme help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What steps has the Government taken in this regard?

42. “Success of ‘Make in India’ programme depends on the success of ‘Skill India’ programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments.

43. To what factors can the recent dramatic fall in equipment costs and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for the thermal power producers and the related industry?

44. There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognising this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs require augmentation. Discuss the issues plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.

45. The nature of economic growth in India in recent times is often described as jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer

46. In what way could replacement of price subsidy with Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss

47. What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in developing the food processing industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming these bottlenecks?

48. Craze for gold in Indians has led to a surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization Scheme.

2014

49. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 has come into effect from 1st January, 2014. What are the key issues which would get addressed with the Act in place? What implications would it have on industrialization and agriculture in India?

50. National Urban Transport Policy emphasises on ‘moving people’ instead of ‘moving vehicles’. Discuss critically the success of the various strategies of the Government in this regard.

51. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the defence sector is now set to be liberalized. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?

52. Should the pursuit of carbon credits and clean development mechanisms set up under UNFCCC-be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of a carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India’s energy needs for economic growth.

53. Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-à-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?

54. “While we flaunt India’s demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability.” What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.

55. Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages short-sightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism for bringing inclusive growth in India? Discuss.

56. Explain how Private Public Partnership arrangements, in long gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsustainable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations’ capacities are not compromised?

2013

57. (a) Discuss the impact of FDI entry into Multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy.

(b) Though India allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in what is called multi-brand retail through the joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI, even after a year, has not picked up. Discuss the reasons.

58. With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new Companies Bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the Bill and their implications.

59. What were the reasons for the introduction of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness.

60. Food Security Bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss variousapprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO

61. Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indians. Are they competing with theMNCs satisfactorily? Discuss.

62. Discuss the rationale for introducing Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. Bring out critically the reasons for the delay in roll out for its regime

POST INDEPENDENT INDIA

2021

1. Assess the main administrative issues and socio-cultural problems in the integration process of Indian Princely States.

2. How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of the marginal and small farmers?

2018

1. Discuss whether formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India?

2016

2. Has the formation of linguistic states strengthened the cause of Indian unity?

2013

3. Analyze the circumstances that led to the Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the Agreement.

4. Critically examine the compulsions which prompted India to play a decisive role in the emergence of Bangladesh.

5. Write a critical note on the evolution and significance of the slogan, ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’

6. Discuss the contributions of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to pre- and post-independent India.

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