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Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing harnesses the peculiar behavior of tiny particles, allowing them to be in multiple states simultaneously. In regular computers, we use bits, which are like little switches that can be either on (1) or off (0). However, in quantum computing, we use qubits, which are like supercharged versions of bits. Qubits can hold more info than just on/off because they can be in multiple states simultaneously due to their quantum nature.

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What is Quantum Computing?

It is a type of computation that harnesses the collective properties of quantum states, such as superposition, interference, and entanglement, to perform calculations. It harnesses the phenomena of quantum mechanics to deliver a huge leap forward in computation to solve complex problems. Quantum mechanics is a science that describes the unique behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic level.

Quantum Computing works on:

Superposition‘ meaning they can exist in multiple states (both 0,1 at the same time) at the same time. It is unlike classical computers where information is processed in ‘bits’ or 1s and 0s, following classical physics.

Entanglement‘ where two or more particles are inextricably linked and mirror each other exactly, even when separated by great physical distance.

Quantum Computer vs. Classical Computer

How quantum computers revolutionize computing:

  • Experts predict that advances in quantum computing technology will greatly benefit artificial intelligence, especially machine learning.
  • Quantum computing algorithms can improve what we can already do with machine learning.
  • Quantum computers excel at solving sequential problems efficiently, potentially giving businesses and individuals the ability to make better decisions.
  • With quantum computers, we can quickly analyze and integrate vast datasets, enhancing our capabilities in machine learning and artificial intelligence.
  • Quantum computers operate on fundamentally different principles compared to traditional computers, making them highly effective at solving specific mathematical problems, such as finding large prime numbers.
  • In quantum computing, a qubit represents the conventional superposition state, offering exponential speedup advantages for handling numerous calculations.
  • Another advantage of quantum computing is its ability to effortlessly perform classical algorithm calculations, similar to traditional computers.

Applications of Quantum Computing

AI and ML Boost from Quantum Computing: Quantum computers have caught the eye for their potential to turbocharge AI and machine learning. Their knack for swiftly sifting through vast data sets, simulating intricate models, and cracking tough optimization problems holds promise for speeding up AI advancements.

Revolutionizing Computational Chemistry: Quantum computers offer a game-changing avenue in computational chemistry. They can mimic the quantum processes underlying chemical reactions, aiding in the quest for better catalysts and materials.

Enhanced Financial Portfolio Optimization: In the finance realm, quantum computing holds the potential to revolutionize portfolio optimization. By leveraging quantum technology for crunching numbers, we can expect better investment mixes tailored to projected returns and risk assessments, achieved in a fraction of the time.

Streamlining Logistics and Scheduling: Quantum computing has the power to streamline logistical operations. From optimizing airplane staging for airlines to fine-tuning production schedules for factories, quantum algorithms promise to minimize costs, maximize efficiency, and boost output across industries.

Cyber Security Reinforced with Quantum Machine Learning: With cyber threats escalating, there’s a pressing need for more robust defense mechanisms. Quantum machine learning techniques offer a promising avenue for early threat detection and damage mitigation in the digital realm, bolstering cybersecurity efforts against evolving threats.


Expensive refrigerators: Because of their sensitivity to environmental disturbances, quantum computers today are highly unstable and must be held in expensive refrigerators cooled to near-absolute zero temperatures.

Threat to National Security: Quantum AI tools, for instance, can provide autonomous weapons and mobile platforms, such as drones, with heightened sensing, navigation, and positioning options in GPS-denied areas. Equipped with quantum AI tools, such systems could also independently alter course to avoid enemy countermeasures.

Cyberattacks: Quantum also has the potential to significantly increase the connectivity, security, and speed of the internet. This architecture, which uses quantum cryptography, could usher in a super-secure communications infrastructure that shields internet-connected devices, including critical infrastructure, from cyberattacks.

Error correction during the computing stage hasn’t been perfected: That makes computations potentially unreliable. Since qubits aren’t digital bits of data, they can’t benefit from conventional error correction solutions used by classical computers.


Even though there are challenges ahead, quantum computing is on track for significant growth. We could soon see a mix of traditional computing and the promising quantum computing in operations before quantum fully matures. Some companies aim to roll out practical quantum systems as soon as 2030, ushering in this change. For India, it’s crucial to ramp up efforts in quantum computing and related technologies.

Read Also: National Quantum Mission

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