NANO TECHNOLOGY – UPSC

What is nano technology?

When we study any material at its atomic and molecular level it is called nano technology. It studies at 10-9 m level.

Origin of nanotechnology:

  1. Van Hippell of MIT University, USA talkd about it in 1950s and said there is a possibilty of making nano molecular instruments.
  2. Richard Feynman who first of all propose the concept of nanotechnology in 1959 (he was Nobel Prize winner in physical science). He gave this concept in his book ‘There is plenty of room at the bottom’.
  3. Nano technology word that was used for the first time in 1974 in Tokyo University by scientist Norio Taniguchi in his experiment paper. But It was K. Erik Drekslar who worked seriously in this direction who gave his thoughts about it in his book ‘Engines of creation’
  4. Nano technology and nano science was started in 1980 with two discoveries
  1. Cluster science
  2.  STM- Scanning Tunneling Microscope

Also Read:Nuclear Fusion

Nano particles and Quantum dots

  1. Particles of the size 10-100nm are called nanopartilces and 1-10nm size particles are called quantum dots.
  2. QD (quantum dots) are the hundredth part of a material also known as ‘artificial molecule’

Carbon nano tubes:

  1. Carbon nano tubes CNTs are allotropes of cylindrical nano structure which are made up of 28000000:1 ratio in length to volume size.
  2. CNTs has chemical bond similar to graphite SP^2 bond which is more stronger than diamond bond sp^3
  3. CNTs by nature adjust itself like a rope when stretched through Vander wall forces which provides it ultimate strength with utmost flexibility.
  4. NTs are cClassified into
  1. SWNTs- Single Wall Nano Tubes
  2. MWNTs- Multi Wall Nano Tubes

Uses of CNTs

  1. LCDs, OLEDs.
  2. Electronic circuits
  3. Medical sciences
  4.  Nano electrical mechanical system
  5. Super conductivity material
  6. Tube space elevator etc.

Fullerene:

  1. Fullerene is the cage like pentagonal or hexagonal structure of carbon molecules.
  2. It was created by prof.  R.E Smeliyetall in 1985, & for this he got Nobel Prize in 1986.
  3. Fullerene was obtained from vaporization of graphite in natural gas He or Ar in presence of electricity. (fullerene produced  as micro carbon particles)
  4. The simplest form of fullerene is Buckminster which C-60 carbon atom in circular shape. Famously known as Buckminster fullerene.
  5. Chemically it is stable and because of strong bond between its particles, a temperature of range 10000 C needed to break it down.

computing

  1. DNA computing, the performing of computations using biological molecules, rather than traditional DNA silicon chips.
  2. L.M Adleman was pioneer in this field.

Nano robots

  1. Nano robots are very small size robots ( 0.5-3 micro meter).
  2. Made up of nano particles of size 1-100 nm.
  3. Nano robots can travels in human body vessels without harming them.
  4. Since its surface is very slippery in nature hence no effect of antibodies.
  5. Glucose or sugar in human body will be the source of power.
  6. With the help of nano robots a physician can not only monitor the healing process but also can command them whenever there is need?
  7. After their compilation of work they can excreted with excreta.

Nano BOTS or BIOMEMS

  1. Biomems- Bio Micro Mechanical System, it’s a probe on which experiment is going on.
  2. It has specialty that it can travel with blood flow, identify the disease and their cure.

READ MORE:BIO-FUELS

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