Why in news? The recent visit of Japanese Prime Minister to India reinforces the centrality of Japan in the emerging geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific.
How about India-Japan relationship?
- Buddhism -Exchange between Japan and India is said to have begun in the 6th century when Buddhism was introduced to Japan.
- Peace treaty -Japan and India signed a peace treaty and established diplomatic relations on 28th April 1952.
- This treaty was one of the first peace treaties Japan signed after World War II.
- Yen loans – Japan started providing yen loans to India in 1958 as the first yen loan aid extended by Japanese government.
- Global Partnership between Japan and India -Established by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in 2000.
- Japan-India Annual Summit -Since April 2005 Japan-India annual summit meetings have been held in respective capitals.
- Global and Strategic Partnership -Japan-India relationship was elevated to the “Global and Strategic Partnership when Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Japan in December 2006.
- Special Strategic and Global Partnership -In 2014, the bilateral relationship was upgraded to Special Strategic and Global Partnership.
What is Indo-Pacific Region?
- The Indo-Pacific region is a geopolitical area that spans two regions of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
- The region stretches from the west coast of the United States to the west coast of India.
- The Indo-Pacific is a 24 nation’s regional framework comprising the tropical waters of the Indian Ocean, the western and central Pacific Ocean, and the seas connecting the two in the general area of Indonesia.
What is Japan’s New Plan for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP)?
- Rules-based order -Lays stress on the need to uphold the rules-based order and respect each other’s territorial sovereignty
- Guiding perspective -Proposes a guiding perspective to be shared by the international community.
- Cooperation and collaboration -Work and embrace diverse voices and create an atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration rather than division and confrontation.
- Rule-making through dialogue -Should be encouraged for creating a cooperative atmosphere.
- Like-minded countries -Japan will work alongside other like-minded countries in the region with India being an indispensable partner.
- Public and private funds -Japan would mobilize a total of more than $75 billion in public and private funds in the Indo-Pacific region by 2030 in infrastructure development.
- Official development assistance (ODAS) -Guidelines for ODA for the next 10 years and introduce an “offer-type” cooperation and a new framework for “private capital mobilization-type” grant aid.
Four pillars –
|Pillars||Objectives of the pillar|
|Principles for peace and rules for prosperity||As vulnerable countries usually suffer the most if there is an erosion in the rule of law so Japan wants to engage in economic development programmes of such countries.|
|Addressing challenges in an Indo-Pacific way||Expansion of cooperation for the FOIP by incorporating realistic and practical projects in a wide range of areas, such as climate change, food security, global health and cybersecurity.|
|Multi-layered connectivity||Japan has identified three areas introducing more such projects on Southeast Asia, south asia and the south pacific/pacific island countries.|
|Extending efforts for security and safe use of the “sea” to the “air”||Japan will help in strengthening the capabilities of maritime law enforcement agencies in other countries.|
What is the need for Japan’s New Plan for a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP)?
To address the following issues
- Russia-Ukraine war
- Growing Chinese assertiveness in the South China Sea
- Food security and cyber space privacy
- Ensuring the freedom of the seas