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Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra Plains

The wide geographical region known as the Great Plains of India includes the lush fertile plains between. They are also called the Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra plains...

The wide geographical region known as the Great Plains of India includes the lush fertile plains between the Indus and Ganges rivers. They are also called the Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra plains. It contains one of the Indian territory’s most fertile landmasses. There are many divisions of the great plains.

Geomorphological features of Indo – Gangetic – Brahmaputra Plain
The Bhabar
  • It is a narrow, porous, northern most stretch of Indo-Gangetic plain.
  • It is about 8-16 km wide running in east-west direction along the foothills (alluvial fans) of the Shiwaliks.
  • They show a remarkable continuity from the Indus to the Tista.
  • Rivers descending from the Himalayas deposit their load along the foothills in the form of alluvial fans.
  • These alluvial fans have merged together to build up the bhabar belt.
  • The porosity of bhabar is the most unique feature.
  • The porosity is due to deposition of huge number of pebbles and rock debris across the alluvial fans.
  • The streams disappear once they reach the bhabar region because of this porosity.
  • Therefore, the area is marked by dry river courses except in the rainy season.
  • The Bhabar belt is comparatively narrow in the east and extensive in the western and north-western hilly region.
  • The area is not suitable for agriculture and only big trees with large roots thrive in this belt.
The Terai
  • Terai is an ill-drained, damp (marshy) and thickly forested narrow tract to the southof Bhabar running parallel to it.
  • The Terai is about15-30 km wide.
  • The underground streams of the Bhabar belt re-emerge in this belt.
  • This thickly forested region provides shelter to a variety of wild life. (Jim Corbett National Park in Uttarakhand and Kaziranga National Park in Assam lie in terai region)
  • The Terai is more marked in the eastern part than in the west because the eastern parts receive comparatively higher amount of rainfall.
  • Most of the Terai land, especially in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, has been turned into agricultural land which gives good crops of sugarcane, rice and wheat.
The Bhangar : Sindh Plain [Pakistan]
  • The Bhangar is the older alluvium along the river beds forming terraces higher than the flood plain.
  • The terraces are often impregnated with calcareous concretions known as ‘KANKAR’.
  • ‘The Barind plains’ in the deltaic region of Bengal and the ‘bhur formations’ in the middle Ganga and Yamuna doab are regional variations of Bhangar.
  • [Bhur denotes an elevated piece of land situated along the banks of the Ganga river especially in the upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab. This has been formed due to accumulation of wind-blown sands during the hot dry months of the year]
  • Bhangar contains fossils of animals like rhinoceros, hippopotamus, elephants, etc.
The Khadar
  • The Khadar is composed of newer alluvium and forms the flood plains along the river banks.
  • A new layer of alluvium is deposited by river flood almost every year.
  • This makes them the most fertile soils of Ganges.
  • Reh or Kallar
  • Reh or Kollar comprises saline efflorescences of drier areas in Haryana.
  • Reh areas have spread in recent times with increase in irrigation (capillary action brings salts to the surface).
Regional Divisions of the Great Plains
  • Rajasthan Plain.
  • Punjab Plain.
  • Ganga Plain.
  • Brahmaputra Plain.
Significance of the Plain
  • This one fourth of the land of the country hosts half of the Indian population.
  • Fertile alluvial soils, flat surface, slow moving perennial rivers and favorable climate facilitate intense agricultural activity.
  • The extensive use of irrigation has made Punjab, Haryana and western part of Uttar Pradesh the granary of India (Prairies are called the granaries of the world).
  • The entire plain except the Thar Desert, has a close network of roads and railways which has led to large scale industrialization and urbanization.
  • Cultural tourism: There are many religious places along the banks of the sacred rivers like the Ganga and the Yamuna which are very dear to Hindus. Here flourished the religions of Budha and Mahavira and the movements of Bhakti and Sufism.

Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra Plains,Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra Plains,Indo-Gangetic-Brahmaputra Plains

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