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Milestones in India’s Space Programme

Milestones in India’s Space Programme

Milestones in India’s Space Programme: In 1962, the birth of the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) set the stage for India’s journey into space exploration. This milestone marked the start of the Indian space program, which took a significant step forward in November 1969 with the establishment of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). Over the past five decades, ISRO has played a crucial role in launching more than 80 satellites, each serving diverse scientific and technological purposes. These satellites have empowered various aspects of everyday life, including mobile communication, direct-to-home services, weather forecasting, telemedicine, telecommunications, disaster management, radio networking, and remote sensing. Through its endeavors, ISRO has brought space technology closer to the lives of millions, making significant contributions to both national and global development.

1962Formation of the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) and the beginning of work on establishing the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS).
1963Launch of the first sounding rocket from TERLS on November 21, 1963.
1965Establishment of the Space Science & Technology Centre (SSTC) in Thumba.
1967Setting up of the Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station in Ahmedabad.
1968Dedication of TERLS to the United Nations on February 2, 1968.
1969Formation of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) under the Department of Atomic Energy on August 15, 1969.
1972Establishment of the Space Commission and the Department of Space on June 1, 1972, with ISRO brought under the Department of Space (DOS).
1975Transition of ISRO into a government organization on April 1, 1975, and the launch of India’s first satellite, Aryabhata, on April 19, 1975.
1979Launch of Bhaskara-I, an experimental satellite for earth observations, on June 7, 1979, and the first experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rohini Technology Payload on August 10, 1979.
1980Successful placement of the Rohini satellite in orbit during the second experimental launch of SLV-3 on July 18, 1980.
1981Launch of the experimental geo-stationary communication satellite APPLE on June 19, 1981, and Bhaskara-II on November 20, 1981.
1982Launch of INSAT-1A on April 10, 1982, deactivated on September 6, 1982.
1983Launch of INSAT-1B on August 30, 1983, and the second developmental launch of SLV-3 with RS-D2 placed in orbit on April 17, 1983.
1984Indo-Soviet Human space mission in April 1984.
1987First developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-1 satellite on March 24, 1987.
1988Launch of India’s first operational Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-1A, on March 17, 1988, and the second developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-2 on July 13, 1988.
1990Launch of INSAT-1D on June 12, 1990.
1991Launch of the second operational Remote Sensing satellite, IRS-1B, on August 29, 1991.
1992Successful placement of SROSS-C onboard ASLV on May 20, 1992, and the launch of INSAT-2A on July 10, 1992.
1993Launch of INSAT-2B on July 23, 1993, and the developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-1E on September 20, 1993.
1994Successful placement of SROSS-C2 onboard ASLV on May 4, 1994, and the second developmental launch of PSLV with IRS-P2 on October 15, 1994.
1995Launch of INSAT-2C on December 7, 1995, and IRS-1C on December 28, 1995.
1996Successful placement of IRS-P3 onboard PSLV on March 21, 1996.
1997First operational launch of PSLV with IRS-1D on September 29, 1997.
1998Augmentation of INSAT system capacity with INSAT-2DT acquired from ARABSAT in January 1998.
1999Launch of INSAT-2E on April 3, 1999, and IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT) on May 26, 1999.
2000Launch of INSAT-3B on March 22, 2000.
2001First developmental launch of GSLV-D1 with GSAT-1 on April 18, 2001, and the successful launch of PSLV-C3 with three satellites on October 22, 2001.
2002Successful launches of INSAT-3C on January 24, 2002, and INSAT-4A on December 22, 2005.
2003Successful launches of INSAT-3A on April 10, 2003, INSAT-3E on September 28, 2003, and RESOURCESAT-1 on October 17, 2003.
2004First operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F01) with the launch of EDUSAT on September 20, 2004.
2005Successful launch of CARTOSAT-1 and HAMSAT by PSLV-C6 on May 5, 2005, and INSAT-4A on December 22, 2005.
2006Second operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F02) with INSAT-4C on July 10, 2006, which couldn’t be placed in orbit.
2007Successful launches of four satellites by PSLV-C7 on January 10, 2007, and INSAT-4B on March 12, 2007.
2008Successful launches of TECSAR satellite on January 21, 2008, CARTOSAT-2A and others on April 28, 2008, and CHANDRAYAAN-1 on October 22, 2008.

2009Successful launch of RISAT-2 and ANUSAT from Sriharikota by PSLV-C12.
2010GSLV-D3 launch from Sriharikota failed to place GSAT-4 satellite in orbit due to unsuccessful flight testing of the Indigenous Cryogenic Stage.
2011Launch of GSAT-12 communication satellite weighing approximately 1410 kg at lift-off. It carries 12 Extended C-band transponders aimed at meeting the country’s increasing demand for transponders, supporting services like Tele-education, Telemedicine, and Village Resource Centres (VRC).
2012Launch of RISAT-1, India’s first indigenous all-weather Radar Imaging Satellite, weighing about 1858 kg, intended to aid agriculture and disaster management efforts.
2013Launch of SARAL, a joint Indo-French satellite mission aimed at oceanographic studies, equipped with ARGOS and ALTIKA instruments.
2013Launch of IRNSS-1A, the first satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), part of a constellation of seven spacecraft.
2013Launch of Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), colloquially known as Mangalyaan, marking India’s first Mars orbiter mission.
2014Launch of GSAT-16, India’s twenty-fourth communication satellite, equipped with 48 communication transponders, launched aboard Ariane-5.
2015Launch of IRNSS-1D, the fourth satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), aimed at enhancing navigation capabilities.
2015Launch of GSAT-6 communication satellite featuring a large unfurlable antenna, and the successful deployment of an indigenously developed upper stage cryogenic engine aboard GSLV-D6.
2015Launch of ASTROSAT, India’s first dedicated multi-wavelength space Observatory, aimed at astronomical observations across different wavelengths.
2015Launch of GSAT-15 communication satellite carrying Ku-band communication transponders and a GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload, launched aboard Ariane 5 VA-227.
2016Launch of IRNSS-1E, the fifth satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) constellation, aimed at enhancing regional navigation capabilities.
2017ISRO sets a world record by launching 104 satellites on a single rocket (PSLV-C37).
2019Launch of Chandrayaan-2, India’s second mission to the Moon.
2023Launch of Chandrayaan-3, India’s third mission to the Moon.
2023Launch of PSLV-C57/Aditya-L1 Mission from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota
2024XPoSat is launched successfully by PSLV-C58 PSLV-C58 vehicle placed the satellite precisely into the intended orbit of 650 km with 6-degree inclination.

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