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Functions And Responsibilities Of Union And The States

Functions And Responsibilities Of Union And The States

The Indian system of governance is described as federal with a unitary bias. While in essence, our nation is a federation of states, with the state governments coming together under the leadership of the union government at the centre, but retaining their liberty in policy making for the state’s internal affairs; multiple factors point to the Unitarianism that is being followed in the democracy.

Relation between union and state governments :

Functions And Responsibilities Of Union And The States
Relation Between Centre and State: Legislative

Major functions of the Union and the State :

Functions of Union:

Central executive body of the government, the cabinet performs array of functions, there its role is critical and pivotal.

  1. Formulation, execution, evaluation and revision of public policy in various spheres which the party in power seeks to progress and practice.
  2. Coordination among various ministries and other organs of the government which might indulge in conflicts, wastefulness, duplication of functions and empire building.
  3. Preparation and monitoring of the legislative agenda which translated the policies of the government in action through statutory enactments.
  4. Executive control over administration through appointments, rule making powers and handling of crises and disasters, natural as well as political.
  5. Financial management through fiscal control and operation of funds like Consolidated Fund and Contingency Funds of India.
  6. Review the work of planning and Planning Commission.

Functions of State:

The state government is defined as the government of a country’s subdivisions and shares political power with the national government. In India, the state governments are the level of government below the central government. Each state of the country is govern by the state government.

  • State governments have separate departments for efficient functioning of the state. States have jurisdiction over education, agriculture, public health, sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries and many other departments.
  • Internal security: The state governments have to maintain the internal security, law and order in the state. Internal security is managed through state police.
  • Public order: States have jurisdiction over police and public order.
  • Education: Providing a public education system, maintaining school buildings and colleges, employment of teachers, providing help to under privileged students all come under the education department of the state.
  • Agriculture: The state governments have to provide support for farmers, funds for best farming practices, disease prevention and aid during disasters such as floods or droughts.
  • Finances: State legislature handles the financial powers of the state, which include authorisation of all expenditure, taxation and borrowing by the state government. It has the power to originate money bills. It has control over taxes on entertainment and wealth, and sales tax.
  • Reservation of bills: The state governor may reserve any bill for the consideration of the President.
  • Transport: State government runs the trains, trams, bus and ferry services and other public transportation in the cities and towns of the States.
  • Water supply: Water supply to cities and towns for drinking, including irrigation for farmers, is the responsibility of the State governments.
  • Budget: State governments make budget for state.

Issues between the Centre and the States:

  1. Dominance of the Congress Party
  2. The Role of the Governor (Discretionary Power and Appointment Issues)
  3. Reservation of Bills for Consideration of President
  4. Misuse of Article 356
  5. The Maintenance of Law and Order in States
  6. Encroachment by the Centre on State List
  7. The Financial weakness of the State
  8. Taxation Powers
  9. Issue of Grants
  10. Role of Planning Commission
  11. Question of Autonomy Issue

Functions And Responsibilities Of Union And The States, Functions And Responsibilities Of Union And The StatesRead Also: Emergency Provisions In Indian Constitution

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