The north Indian Ocean accounts for 6% of the global tropical cyclones annually. Despite the small fraction of cyclones, some of the most devastating cyclones have formed in this basin, causing extensive damage to the life and property in the north Indian Ocean rim countries.
Cyclone season occur in India’s climate
- India’s climate typically spans from April to December
- The Southwest Indian Ocean cyclone season officially lasts from 15 November to 30 April, a period selected to encompass 9 of the 10 tropical cyclones.
- Between December and March, 80% of storms and cyclones exist.
- January and February witness more than 50% of the activity.
- January and February also see more than 50% of the cyclones occurring when ocean sea temperatures are warm.
- Occasionally, there may be a storm or a depression occurring “out of season.”
- The Southwest Indian and Australian/Southeast Indian basins have very similar annual cycles with tropical cyclones commencing in late October/early November. They reach a double peak in activity, one in mid-January and one in mid-February to early March, and conclude in May. The Australian/Southeast Indian basin’s February lull in activity is a bit more pronounced than the Southwest Indian basin’s lull.
- Example: Cyclone Mocha
Atlantic Hurricane Season
- The Atlantic hurricane season officially spans from 1 June to 30 November, encompassing over 97% of tropical activity. The traditional start date has been June 1st for decades, and the end date was gradually shifted from October 31st to November 15th and is now November 30th.
- The Atlantic basin experiences a highly peaked season from August through October, with 78% of tropical storm days, 87% of minor hurricane days (Saffir-Simpson Scale categories 1 and 2), and 96% of major hurricane days (Saffir-Simpson categories 3, 4, and 5) occurring during this period. The peak of activity is in early to mid-September. Occasionally, there may be a tropical cyclone occurring “out of season,” primarily in May or December.
- The Northeast Pacific basin has a broader peak, with activity beginning in late May or early June and continuing until late October or early November. It experiences a peak in storminess in late August/early September. The official dates for this basin are from May 15th to November 30th.
- The Northwest Pacific basin sees tropical cyclones occurring all year round regularly. It does not have an official definition of a typhoon season due to the continuous occurrence. However, there is a distinct minimum in February and the first half of March, with the main season going from July to November and a peak in late August/early September.
- The North Indian basin has a double peak of activity in May and November, although tropical cyclones are seen from April to December. Severe cyclonic storms (>33 m/s winds [76 mph]) occur almost exclusively from April to June and late September to early December.
- The Australian/Southwest Pacific basin begins with tropical cyclone activity in late October/early November, reaches a single peak in late February/early March, and then fades out in early May.
Globally, September is the most active month and May is the least active month.
FAQs on Cyclone Season in Indian Climate:
Ques 1. When does the cyclone season occur in India’s climate?
Ans. The cyclone season in India’s climate typically spans from April to December, with the peak activity observed during the months of May and November.
Ques 2. What are the main regions affected by cyclones in India?
Ans. Cyclones in India primarily affect the coastal regions of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. States like Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Gujarat are more vulnerable to cyclone impacts.
Ques 3. What are the factors that contribute to cyclone formation in India?
Ans. Cyclone formation in India is influenced by various factors, including warm ocean temperatures, low vertical wind shear, and a pre-existing disturbance or low-pressure system over the ocean.
Ques 4. How are cyclones classified in the Indian Ocean region?
Ans. Cyclones in the Indian Ocean are classified based on their wind speed. They are categorized as Tropical Depression (up to 61 km/h), Cyclonic Storm (62-87 km/h), Severe Cyclonic Storm (88-117 km/h), Very Severe Cyclonic Storm (118-165 km/h), and Super Cyclonic Storm (above 165 km/h).
Ques 5. What measures does India take to mitigate the impact of cyclones?
Ans. India employs various measures to mitigate the impact of cyclones, including early warning systems, evacuation plans, strengthening infrastructure along the coast, and conducting awareness campaigns to educate people about preparedness and safety measures.
Cyclone Season in Indian Climate
Read Also : Why do most cyclones hit India’s east coast?